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Regular expressions are an important notation for specifying patterns. Lexeme A lexeme is a sequence of characters in the source program that is matched by the pattern for a token.
The regular expressions over alphabet specifies a language according to the following rules. Regular Definitions A regular definition gives names to certain regular expressions and uses those names in other regular expressions.
Synthesized Attributes: An attribute is synthesized if its value at a parent node can be determined from attributes of its children.
Parsing Parsing is the process of determining if a string of tokens can be generated by a grammar. A parser must be capable of constructing the tree, or else the translation cannot be guaranteed correct. For any language that can be described by CFG, the parsing requires O n3 time to parse string of n token. However, most programming languages are so simple that a parser requires just O n time with a single left-to-right scan over the iput string of n tokens.
There are two types of Parsing 1. This set of strings is described by a rule called a pattern associated with the token Lexeme- A sequence of characters in the source program that is matched by the pattern for a token. List The Operations On Languages.
An identifier is defined as a letter followed by zero or more letters or digits. Character classes [abc] where a,b,c are alphabet symbols denotes the regular expressions a b c.
Non regular sets. Hierarchical analysis is one in which the tokens are grouped hierarchically into nested collections with collective meaning. Also termed as Parsing. Semantic analysis is one in which certain checks are performed to ensure that components of a program fit together meaningfully. Mainly performs type checking. Reasons for separating the analysis phase into lexical and syntax analyzers:. Define A Context Free Grammar. Derivation from S means generation of string w from S.
For constructing derivation two things are important. Instead of choosing the arbitrary non terminal one can choose i either leftmost derivation — leftmost non terminal in a sentinel form. Define Ambiguous Grammar. A grammar G is said to be ambiguous if it generates more than one parse tree for some sentence of language L G. A grammar is said to be operator precedence if it possess the following properties: There should not be any production rule possessing two adjacent non terminals at the right hand side.
LR parsers can be constructed to recognize most of the programming languages for which the context free grammar can be written. The class of grammar that can be parsed by LR parser is a superset of class of grammars that can be parsed using predictive parsers.
LR parsers work using non backtracking shift reduce technique yet it is efficient one. The following are the problems associated with top down parsing: Write Short Notes On Yacc? YACC is an automatic tool for generating the parser program. The set of prefixes of right sentential forms that can appear on the stack of a shift-reduce parser are called viable prefixes. An equivalent definition of a viable prefix is that it is a prefix of a right sentential form that does not continue past the right end of the rightmost handle of that sentential form.
A handle of a string is a substring that matches the right side of a production, and whose reduction to the nonterminal on the left side of the production represents one step along the reverse of a rightmost derivation. S, and all items whose dots are not at the left end.
Non-kernel items, which have their dots at the left end. Phrase level error recovery is implemented by filling in the blank entries in the predictive parsing table with pointers to error routines.
These routines may change, insert, or delete symbols on the input and issue appropriate error messages. They may also pop from the stack.
A Compiler for different machines can be created by attaching different back end to the existing front ends of each machine. A Compiler for different source languages can be created by proving different front ends for corresponding source languages t existing back end. A machine independent code optimizer can be applied to intermediate code in order to optimize the code generation.
There are mainly three types of intermediate code representations. Compiler Design Tutorial. Compiler Design Practice Tests.
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All Courses. All Practice Tests. The analysis part breaks up the source program into constituent pieces and creates an intermediate representation of the source program. The synthesis part constructs the desired target program from the intermediate representation.
Linear Analysis. Hierarchical Analysis.
Semantic Analysis. Call by value Call by reference Copy-restore Call by name Question 8. The strategies are: Static allocation Stack allocation Heap allocation Question Various fields f activation record are: A machine independent code optimizer can be applied to intermediate code in order to optimize the code generation. What are the various types of intermediate code representation? There are mainly three types of intermediate code representations.
Syntax tree Three address code Define backpatching. Backpatching is the activity of filling up unspecified information of labels using appropriate semantic actions in during the code generation process.
Mention the functions that are used in backpatching. The index i is passed as an argument to this function where I is an index to the array of quadruple.