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Depending on the context, lions of both sexes consider mane length and .. A male lion runs the risk of heat stress in exchange for having a long, dark mane. The mane of the African lion (Panthera leo) is a highly variable trait that reflects male condition .. limit the area available for heat exchange. We used infrared. PDF | Lion manes represent a compromise between social benefits and ecological As predicted from heat-load considerations, mane length and density were.
Reproductive success of Hubert, W. Psychotropic effects of testosterone. In Testoster- lions. In Reproductive success. Edited by T. Edited by E.
Nieschlag and University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Springer-Verlag, New York. Patterson, B.
No mane event. Morphologic, genetic, and ecological vari- issue. In Proceedings of the Iwago, M. Shogakukan Inc. Camera trails in Africa. New York. Patterson, J. MacMillan and Co. The man-eating lions of Tsavo.
Zoology: adjacent areas. Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi. Leuthold, W. Recovery of woody vegetation in Tsavo Na- Pease, A. The book of the lion. John Murray, London.
Pennycuick, C. A method of identifying Leuthold, W. Density and biomass of individual lions, Panthera leo, with an analysis of the reliability ungulates in Tsavo East National Park. East Afr. Pocock, R. The lions of Asia. Bombay Nat. Leyhausen, P. Cat behaviour: the predatory and social behav- ior of domestic and wild cats. Rachlow, J. Correlates of male mating strategies in white rhinos Ceratotherium simum. Mammals collected by the Swedish Zoological J. Expedition to British East Africa Randall, V.
Androgens and human hair growth.
Lumia, A. Effects of Randall, V. Androgen action in cultured dermal papilla cells from hu- tosterone, on intermale aggression and sexual behavior in male man hair follicles. Skin Pharmacol. Rodgers, W.
The lion Panthera leo, Linn. Schaller, G. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator—prey McComb, K.
Playback as a tool for studying contests be- relations. In Playback and studies of animal commu- Schaller, G. Golden shadows, flying hooves. Dell Pub- nication. Edited by P. Plenum Publishing, New lishing, New York. Selous, F.
African nature notes and reminiscences. Macmillan McComb, K. Female and Co. Smuts, G. A mass capture Proc.
Millar, K. Age determi- Dominance, testosterone levels, and scraping activity in nation of the African lion Panthera leo. Stander, P. Hunting success of lions in a Mills, M. Hyena survey of Kruger National Park, August— semi-arid environment. Edited by N. Dunstone and M. October Zoological Society of London, London.
Seventeen trips through Somaliland. Rowland Mills, M. Predator—prey relationships: Ward and Co. Differences in testosterone metabolism by beard and Myers, N. In Kingdom of cats. Edited by National scalp hair follicle dermal papilla cells.
National Wildlife Federation, Washington, — Thornton, M. Inhibition of hair growth A. Ability to culture dermal papilla by testosterone in the presence of dermal papilla cells from the cells from red deer Cervus elaphus hair follicles with differing frontal bald scalp of the postpubertal stumptailed macaque.
En- hormonal responses in vivo offers a new model for studying the docrinology, — Ogutu, J.
The response of lions and Van Orsdol, K. Ecological spotted hyaenas to sound playbacks as a technique for estimat- correlates of lion social organization Panthera leo.
Owens, M. Cry of the Kalahari. Houghton Woodroffe, R. En- Mifflen Co. Cooperation and competition European badger Meles meles. Wrangham, R. An ecological model of female-bonded Nature Lond. Behaviour, — Abstract The function of manes in lions has been a topic of scientific interest since Darwin suggested that it provides protection in intraspecific fights.
Humans also have unusual structural protections for the head, face and neck, areas that are especially accessible during intraspecies attack, and highly vulnerable to damage. One of these, the beard, consists of coarse hairs that grow indefinitely, but only for males, and only during and following puberty; suggesting that it, like the lion's mane, may serve as protection in intraspecies male fights. Such structural protections may reflect a specific combination of lethal weaponry and social life-style, particularly when these are developed so rapidly that they are not accompanied by the evolution of complex attack-inhibiting social behaviors.
Keywords: lion, mane, beard, aggression, social systems, target sites, infanticide, evolution Lion manes are obviously a sexually selected trait. Manes are restricted to males, contribute little to the lion's general economy of life, and apparently present a number of real costs that would otherwise make it a candidate for elimination by natural selection….. Still, given the interest that people have focused on lions over the last 30, years, it is remarkable that we do not know whether manes are the product of male—male contest, or female choice, or possibly of both Patterson, , p.
Aggression, Social Systems and Evolution In terms of phylogeny, aggression is among the oldest of evolved behavior patterns Blanchard and Blanchard, in press. Exemplars of aggression have been reported in animals without a central nervous system; in a host of invertebrates; and in each of the seven classes of vertebrates, including the most primitive; agnatha, hagfish and lampreys Malmqvist, There is an emerging consensus that one major function, i.
Wilson, , with the further provision that aggression typically occurs in the context of competition from conspecifics over such resources. Winning may be highly adaptive because it results in immediate or longer—term enhancement of access to resources that are important for that species Blanchard and Blanchard, ; Moynihan, Resources and their distribution are also major factors in the development of species-typical social systems Rubenstein, , of which within-species aggressive behaviors are one, important, component.
Some species such as mice are particularly opportunistic and may show rapid and dramatic changes in social structure in accord with habitat alterations Bronson, ; Gray and Hurst, , a flexibility that may stem in part from their long-term status as human commensals, with its strong requirement of rapid adjustment to host-initiated changes Blanchard et al. However, the ecological conditions under which most mammalian species have evolved are less variable than those associated with human habitations and human geographic movements, and the social systems evolving in most habitats appear also to be more conservative and resistant to change than are those of mice.
Evaluation of the rate of change in evolved characteristics of animals in response to important alterations in ecological conditions constitutes a difficult field of study, but some estimates may be obtained when a fossil record is available that permits information on relatively specific ecological changes.
As this example suggests, when ecological changes make some of the existing characteristics of species less adaptive than previously, the replacement of these by more adaptive characteristics can be a lengthy and variable process; moreover, maladaptive as well as adaptive aspects of the emerging behaviors may be relevant to the patterns that ultimately emerge. With complex behavior patterns such as those involved in social relationships an even longer time-frame might be needed than for venom resistance and other purely physiological adaptations.
However, following long-term exposure to diverse situations, even closely related species would be expected to show behavioral differences based on what is most adaptive in their particular habitats: Rubenstein , p. In contrast, Grevy's zebra Equus grevyi inhabit locales where food and water are widely dispersed and scarcer, such that females forage alone and must travel between feeding and watering areas.
In this species males form territories along the traveling routes, gaining breeding access to females that pass through or linger within the territory.
In both the harem and territorial social systems, zebra males attempt to control access to females in breeding condition, but the time-frame and the location of these efforts vary with the conditions under which these animals have evolved.
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