PRISONERS OF. THE SUN. Comel 3. At Police Headquarters in Callao, Peru Haddock, a retired ship's cap. tain, and Tintin, the reporter? Oh, yes, Interpol. Prisoners of The Sun (The Adventures of Tintin 14). Home · Prisoners of The Sun (The 87 downloads Views 15MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF. Prisoners of the Sun (The Adventures of Tintin) PDF, please click the hyperlink beneath and save the document or have accessibility to other information that are .
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However, the ethics of pharmaceutical experimentation with human subjects is very intricate and involves a variety of moral concerns. It would therefore be justified to impose stricter regulations on drug trials in prisons, or even to entirely discard them.
The ethics of pharmaceutical experimentation with human subjects is fraught with moral concerns. Exploitation refers to the act of taking unfair advantage of a person by engaging them in a transaction in which their gain is less than gain they ought to have had, as defined by a normative baseline.
To determine whether a person has been exploited we need to look at the net gain of the transaction. To determine whether a person has been coerced we need to look at how their options were manipulated to influence their decision.
The consent given by prisoners cannot be regarded as informed; prisoners disproportionately suffer from lack of education, mental instability, unfamiliarity with language and norms, and infectious and psychiatric disorders, 3 which inhibit their ability to understand the material relevant to their decision to participate in a drug trial, especially if the information is presented to them in a manner inappropriate to their status and abilities. Their consent cannot be regarded as voluntary; prisoners have to make decisions under duress, they are continuously reinforced to comply with directions, and their well-being is contingent on their obedience.
They can be easily manipulated to comply with the directions of those who have authority over them, and often subject them to forms of direct or subtle coercion, including risks, threats, or acts of physical and even sexual assault. This institutional pressure damages the ability of the participants to freely choose to participate in the study, draw boundaries of privacy, and withdraw consent from the study, as they are likely to give consent out of habit, disempowerment, or an attempt to appear favorably in the eyes of their keepers.
While most trials offer a monetary reward to outweigh the small health risk undertaken by the participants, the health risks involved in drug trials in prisons outweigh this small benefit, a claim supported by historical and analytical data.