COMPUTER BASICS - TERMINOLOGY. Application – A computer program that does specific tasks such as word processing or spreadsheets. Bit – Represents a . OF COMPUTER TERMS. FROM A TO Z mtn-i.info Anti-spyware Antivirus Program Bandwidth Bitmap Browser Bugs Byte. Computing Compression CPU. Dictionary of computer and Internet terms / Douglas A. Downing,. Michael A. Covington, Melody Mauldin Covington. — 10th ed. p. cm. ISBN
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Cracker The preferred term used to refer to a computer criminal who penetrates a computer to steal information or damage the program in some. Basic Computer Terminology. Access time - The performance of a hard drive or other storage device - how long it takes to locate a file. Active program or window . This dictionary contains over 32, terms that are specific to Computers and . Emulator software can also enable a desktop computer to send print jobs from a.
Configuration: The setup of something on your computer. It could be how to have configured settings in a software program to suit you. Or it could be how your computer system is configured to boot. How is it set. Contacts: Usually a list of names, email addresses, or phone numbers. Most people store email addresses in a contact list because they can be hard to remember when you have hundreds.
Control Panel: Where most system settings are stored for you to configure. You can access the control panel from the Windows start menu. When in the control panel you can press on an icon to see that areas customizable settings. Cookie: A text information message that is stored on your computer when you visit a web page. When you return to the page the cookie is used to recognize you. Copy: To duplicate information. You can copy a file and paste it to another location; however the original will remain intact in its previous position.
Unlike cut, where the original is removed from its location and pasted elsewhere. It is a chip attached to the motherboard and controls and calculates data and is a vital part of your computer. Sometimes known as the Processor, the CPU comes in different speeds. I have a 2. Crack: An illegally altered file that is made in order to steal a software program. A crack can make a trial version into a fully paid version without paying, therefore stealing the product.
Sometimes an illegally obtained serial number is also used to crack a program. Crash: A problem that occurs in the hardware or software that causes the computer to freeze up or stop functioning. CTRL: Stands for control button. Found on both sides, bottom left and right, of the keyboard. Used to perform special functions such as selecting all Ctrl-A. Cursor: The pointer, usually an arrow or line, which is controlled by the computer mouse. When you move your mouse the cursor moves on your computer screen.
Where ever it is placed in a text document is where the next letter can be typed. Cut: To remove a folder, file, graphics, or text from its original location with the intention of pasting it to another location. Cyberbullying: This is very similar to bullying at school however the bullying takes place online. Cyberspace: Refers to the Internet world out there.
When you are online you might browse through Cyberspace. D Data: A collection of facts, information, photos, text, anything, on a computer or on the internet. Database: A Database is a structured collection of data that is stored on a computer or server, the most used model of database is a relational database. Data Compression: Compressing data so it does not take as long to transfer from one place to another.
For example data is compressed when you upload a file to the internet because this file is usually travelling through cables and phone lines. Debugging: Locating bugs defects and problems in a software program to repair and eliminate them. Decryption: What you do when you decrypt something. This could be removing a security password or breaking a code to get access.
Default Search Provider: A default search provider is a search provider that you have chosen to use through your browser. For example in Internet Explorer when you first set the program up it asks you to choose a default search provider. Default Settings: A preset condition in something. For example in Windows a picture will by default be saved to the pictures folder on your computer. All programs and websites have default settings to start with and remain there until you choose to change these settings.
Defragmentation: Defragmentation re-allocates all files and compacts then into a neat, organized sections together therefore removing wasted space between the individual files.
This brings the frequently used files to an area for easier and more efficient access and therefore making your computer run faster. Defrag: To use a defragmentation tool to defrag your computer files. This word was computer slang but now it may be the only word used for defragmentation.
Delete file or folder: To remove a file or folder from your computer, which frees up space on your hard drive. To delete a file simply right click on it and choose delete. Delete text: To delete text you can simple place your cursor on a word and press the backspace key.
You can also select text by making it blue, and then pressing delete on your keyboard. You cannot delete text from a document you do not have access to. For example you cannot delete text from an article on webpage but you could delete text from a form you are filling out online.
Descending sort: Sorting records or lists from Z to A. Desktop: It is everything you see when you start your computer except the taskbar. Your desktop has the icons on it that are shortcuts to programs and folders. Desktop computer: A desktop computer was originally a computer that was built to be on top of a desktop. However now a desktop computer can be any computer that is not portable like a laptop.
Device: A device is a part of the computer or an add on that performs a particular task. Device Driver: A piece of software, which tells the operating system how to use a particular device. Each device needs Software to make it run. Sometimes drivers are automatically installed, however other add on devices may require you to install driver software. For example a printer comes with drivers on a printer disc.
Dialogue Box: A dialog box can display on your computer screen and gives the user options to choose from or enter information into. For example if you open your systems properties box you can change settings and open more dialog boxes for each different section. Disk or Disc: A Disk is a magnetic drive such as a hard drive and a Disc is where the data is stored using lasers, like a cd drive puts data on a Cd disc. The cd disc is also has a disc shape. See the difference between disk and disc.
Disk Drive: A Disk Drive is a device for computer storage it normally stores the Operating System and other important files like images and documents by using a mechanical arm which records data to disks and also retrieves the data when requested as well.
Disc Drive: This is where you put a cd disc in to copy to or read the disc. A disc drive reads and burns data to a cd disc by using lasers. Can also be known as a CD drive or burner.
Diskette: Also known as a floppy disk. A floppy disk is old technology that held a small amount of data on a magnetic tape inside the disk shell. The data was transferred by a floppy disk drive. Document: Usually refers to some type of formatted information that contains text, tables, or forms. For example you create a document when you write a letter in Microsoft word.
Domain: On a local network the Domain is a group of computers that is run by at least one server domain server so that a set of policies computer rules telling the computer who is allowed to do what is permeated passed throughout the whole network in a quick and easy fashion.
Dos: Disc operating system. Invented by IBM. This is the basic command system on your computer. It still exists in some form even though Windows operating system seems to be the only thing on your computer.
When you go to the command line and type a command this is through dos. Double-click: To left click your mouse on something on your computer two times. For example you have to double-click on a desktop icon to open a program. Download: To download something is to get it from the internet to your computer through your internet connection.
For example, when you receive email to your computer the new emails are downloaded from your mail server. Now days people download everything including documents, information, music files, movies, games, cracks, cheats, and more.. To upload is the opposite of download. Drag: To drag something across the computer screen. For example you could drag a photo from the pictures folder onto the desktop.
Simply select the file, by making it blue, but keep the left mouse button pressed in while you move the file to where you want. Drag-and drop: Usually refers to dragging a file and then dropping it to another location. In some programs you Drive Letter: A drive letter is an assigned alphabetical letter to a disk or logical drive, the reason for this is to allow an organized file system, there are drives which are automatically assigned certain letters like the old 3.
Drop Down Arrow: In Windows various applications and even websites have a drop down arrow, and if pressed will reveal a menu of choices. The arrow is facing down. E Edit: Meaning to alter, improve or change an original document, image, video, sound or any other digital file.
Editing is the modification of data. E-mail: Electronic mail A document or message sent to an email server to deliver to a recipient over the internet. Email Client: An email client is a program that lets you read, create emails, send, reply to, read, and manage your emails. Email Signature: An email signature is a bit of personalized text such as your contact information or a favorite quote that is automatically inserted at the bottom of every message you send. Email Server: An email server collects your email and delivers it to your chosen email client.
Same with sending an email. It gets taken to the email server to distribute to the appropriate email recipient. It is a bit like a post office in the real world and the email client is your letter box. Embed: To merge data or files together to become one package.
For example you might embed an uncommon font type into a word document. This way when the document is opened on a foreign computer it will still contain the font. Emoticons: Because people cannot always see you when chatting on the internet we have symbols and pictures that relay our emotions.
If you type this : it means you are smiling or happy. Sometimes when you type this a program will convert it to a smiley face icon.
Ergonomic office chair: This refers to a chair purposely designed to fit the comfort needs of the user with considerations such as surrounding environment taken into account.
Ethernet: A LAN local area network connection method. Plugging an Ethernet cable usually blue from a computers Ethernet port to a modem usually connects you to the internet. Therefore you have and Ethernet connection.
When you install a program and press accept you are agreeing to these terms. Execute: Usually to start or perform something. Either to start a program or to carry out an action. A file that can execute something usually has the file extension like. Execution file: A file with. When you press on a. Export: To remove a copy of information from a program that can be imported back at a later date. It could also be imported into a suitably compatible program.
For example you can export your contacts list from Outlook Express and import it to Thunderbird. Extensions: A file extension identifies labels a file and lets you know what program will open it. For example a file with. A file with. E-zine: An online magazine that is either published on the internet or delivered by email. F FAQ: Short for frequently asked questions. Function keys: Keys on a keyboard that give special commands to the computer. For example you can press the F1 key to bring up a help menu.
Function keys are usually at the top of the keyboard. It can also be displayed in the address bar in your browser, next to the URL of the webpage. File: In the old days a file used to be a section category that was kept in a filing cabinet, however now we have less paper to file away.
Now the term file can mean anything on your computer. Everything on your computer is made up of files. Folders and directories have files stored in them. Programs are made up of certain files that make the programs work.
A file on a computer can mean any file unless you specify which type. For example there are music files, picture files, system files, and so on. File Extension: A file extension classifies what category a file falls into. If it has. File name: The name assigned to a file. File transfer protocol: Abbreviated to FTP. This is a network protocol that states how a file can be transferred to another computer.
For example you will have to use a FTP client to upload files to a web server. The files will be manipulated and standardized to be compatible with the other computer. Firewall: A personal firewall is a computer program that protects your computer from malicious users by blocking incoming and outgoing unauthorized access.
Windows Xp comes with a built in firewall. You can find it in the control panel under the security section. Filters: Can refer to a couple of different aspects in computing, It can refer to an Email Filter which is used to process emails and organize it to specified criteria, the most general criteria is usually to delete or send suspected spam emails to a spam folder instead of your inbox.
Folder: A Folder on a computer is used to store groups of files and other folders in an organized fashion, folders can be created by the user to make files easier to find similar to an alphabetized filing system in a cabinet or telephone directory.
Font: A text type that you can apply to text. For example you can make text Tahoma, 12pt, bold or maybe Arial, 10pt, italic. Footer: A space at the bottom of a document where you can place text or page numbers. If your document has more than one page the footer text can be repeated on every page. Footnote: A footnote is a snippet of text that is placed at the side or bottom of a page and refers to a piece of text in a document. It is like adding extra notes or explanations to different areas in a document Format: Hard drive, re-writeable disks to clear of all data.
Clean to the original state of empty. A hard drive has to be formatted and partitioned to install an operating system. It can also mean to format text by changing the font, color and size. Format text: It can also mean to format text by changing the font, color and size. Forward: Forward is an option found in an e-mail client, which allows you to forward a received e-mail to another recipient?
Forum: This is a member based website, usually free to join, where people gather to chat and converse on a particular subject. Forums can be used as a very useful learning tool for most subjects as people share their knowledge and experiences with others. You can find computer help forums, money saving forums, child birth forums, and more.. Floppy Disks: A form of old data storage that held data on magnetic tape.
The disk was also referred to as a 3. Freeware: Copyrighted software that is available for use without charge. It is not a trialware or shareware, it is completely free. G Gamer: A Gamer refers to someone who plays video games either on a computer or console it could also include board games as well.
Glitch: A hardware problem much like a software bug, that causes a computer to malfunction. Google: The number one search engine on the planet. Graphics: Usually anything that is displayed by the computer is known as a graphic display graph because it uses a pixel graph to place colors. Graphics Accelerator: Computer display device specially configured to provide enhanced performance. Graphics Card: An add-on component that can be installed into your computer to improve or enhance graphics that you see.
This facility can also be built in and is then know as onboard graphics. Graphics Driver: A small piece of software needed to run both onboard graphics and a graphics card. Graphic File: A picture or image file that has been stored digitally onto your computer. GUI: graphical user interface. This is when a computer user presses on icons, uses menus, or other graphical features to perform commands on a computer. This is the opposite to manually typing in difficult commands.
See the opposite CLI. H Hardware: The basic parts that make up your computer. The motherboard, hard drive, memory, etc.
Hard drive: A hard drive is the storage component of your computer. It is the only place you can save a file to. You can add on an external hard drive or a flash pen drive for extra space. See the different drives of a computer.
Hard disk: A magnetic storage device that stores large amounts of data. Otherwise known as a hard drive. A compact disc stores data by writing to the disc with lasers. Header: Repetitive information that appears at the top of every page of a document.
See the header at the top of this page. Highlight: To select something by making it blue. You can left click once on a file or left click at the start of text, holding the button in to select the text you want. After you have selected something you can copy, cut, move, delete, and more. If you right click on something that is highlighted you will see a menu.
Hit: A hit in website talk is equal to one visit to a website. For example Tips4pc gets over 5, hits a day. Home page: The main page for a Web site which is classed as the entrance to a bigger series of related web pages. Html: hyper text markup language This is coding used to develop webpages.
You can start from scratch, writing html or you can use a html editor like Frontpage that has a template to start with. I Icon: A graphic symbol for an application, file or folder.
There are icons that you can use to open applications on your desktop. There are also icons in your taskbar, control panel, and more..
Install: In computer terms it is referring to installing a software program onto your computer. IP Address: A unique address that each computer has. If you have a home network your modem will have an ip address, so will your router, and any computers that are attached.
Keypad: The set of numbers on the right hand side of the keyboard. For example an office or home network. Landscape: To position a page in landscape position makes the longest measurement the width and the shortest the height of the page. As opposed to portrait page layout which has the page in normal upright position. Left Click: To press on the left mouse button once. To double click is to press on the left mouse button twice.
LCD: Liquid crystal display. Line spacing: The space or set measurement that is between two lines of text. For example the space between these lines you are reading now. Log Off: This can also be named log out, referring to the opposite of log on. To exit and sign out. After working on his revolutionary difference engine , designed to aid in navigational calculations, in he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine , was possible.
The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards , a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom. For output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a bell. The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be read in later. The Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit , control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops , and integrated memory , making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete.
Eventually, the project was dissolved with the decision of the British Government to cease funding.
Babbage's failure to complete the analytical engine can be chiefly attributed to political and financial difficulties as well as his desire to develop an increasingly sophisticated computer and to move ahead faster than anyone else could follow. Nevertheless, his son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit the mill in He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in Analog computers Sir William Thomson 's third tide-predicting machine design, —81 During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers , which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.
However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers. The differential analyser , a mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration using wheel-and-disc mechanisms, was conceptualized in by James Thomson , the brother of the more famous Lord Kelvin. This built on the mechanical integrators of James Thomson and the torque amplifiers invented by H. A dozen of these devices were built before their obsolescence became obvious.
By the s, the success of digital electronic computers had spelled the end for most analog computing machines, but analog computers remained in use during the s in some specialized applications such as education control systems and aircraft slide rule.
Digital computers It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Digital computer. Discuss May Electromechanical By , the United States Navy had developed an electromechanical analog computer small enough to use aboard a submarine.
This was the Torpedo Data Computer , which used trigonometry to solve the problem of firing a torpedo at a moving target. During World War II similar devices were developed in other countries as well. Replica of Zuse 's Z3 , the first fully automatic, digital electromechanical computer.
Early digital computers were electromechanical; electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform the calculation. These devices had a low operating speed and were eventually superseded by much faster all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes. The Z2 , created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in , was one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer.
It was quite similar to modern machines in some respects, pioneering numerous advances such as floating point numbers. Rather than the harder-to-implement decimal system used in Charles Babbage 's earlier design , using a binary system meant that Zuse's machines were easier to build and potentially more reliable, given the technologies available at that time.
The engineer Tommy Flowers , working at the Post Office Research Station in London in the s, began to explore the possible use of electronics for the telephone exchange. Experimental equipment that he built in went into operation five years later, converting a portion of the telephone exchange network into an electronic data processing system, using thousands of vacuum tubes.
The German encryption machine, Enigma , was first attacked with the help of the electro-mechanical bombes which were often run by women. It had paper-tape input and was capable of being configured to perform a variety of boolean logical operations on its data, but it was not Turing-complete. Colossus Mark I contained 1, thermionic valves tubes , but Mark II with 2, valves, was both 5 times faster and simpler to operate than Mark I, greatly speeding the decoding process.
Like the Colossus, a "program" on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later. Once a program was written, it had to be mechanically set into the machine with manual resetting of plugs and switches. On the left hand side of the window you will see common folders and drives on your system. You can navigate directly to each of these places by clicking on them. This section displays all files and folders available within the active folder.
You can browse them here. If you choose a folder instead, you will open it to display all the files held inside. Right clicking on a file or folder will let you interact with it: Right clicking on an empty space in this window will unlock a different menu. Here you can create new folders: You can use this search tool to browse files. It will look for file names containing the keyword you enter.