Medicinal Plants/Indian Herbal Remedies, published by Springer. Ayurvedic synonyms have been selected from the following sources: • The Ayurvedic. PDF | Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, multifactorial, progressive, neurodegenerative disease mainly affecting the elder population. Potential Medicinal Plants used in Ayurvedic System of Medicine and their diversity in Southern Western Ghats of Coimbatore District, Tamil.
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medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India for claims of plants used for Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine has. medicinal plants is needed in order to understand their potential influence fully. ayurvedic polyherbal medicine, action of ayurvedic plants, importance of. Articles / Topics about Ayurveda, ayurveda treatments, basic principles,thoughts, health care through ayurveda.
C and had produced two of the greatest physicians of ancient India, Charaka and Shushrutha who composed the basic texts of their trade, the Samhitas.
By this time, ayurveda had already developed eight different subspecialties of medical treatment, named Ashtanga, which included surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, toxicology, health and longevity, and spiritual healing . Ayurvedic medicine was mainly composed of herbal preparations which were occasionally combined with different levels of other compounds, as supplements . In the Ayurvedic system, the herbs used for medicinal purposes are classed as brain tonics or rejuvenators. Among the plants most often used in Ayurveda are, in the descending order of importance: a Ashwagandha, b Brahmi, c Jatamansi, d Jyotishmati, e Mandukparni, f Shankhapushpi, and g Vacha.
The general appearance of these seven plants is shown in Fig. The scientific investigations concerning the best known and most scientifically investigated of these herbs, Ashwagandha will be discussed in detail in this review.
It is also known in different linguistic areas in India by its local vernacular names . Some herbalists refer to ashwagandha as Indian ginseng, since it is used in India, in a way similar to how ginseng is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a large variety of human diseases .
Ashwagandha is a shrub whose various parts berries, leaves and roots have been used by Ayurvedic practitioners as folk remedies, or as aphrodisiacs and diuretics. The fresh roots are sometimes boiled in milk, in order to leach out undesirable constituents.
The berries are sometimes used as a substitute to coagulate milk in cheese making. It is also considered an adaptogen, a nontoxic medication that normalizes physiological functions, disturbed by chronic stress, through correction of imbalances in the neuroendocrine and immune systems [9, 10]. Table 2: Some common medicinal plants having nutraceutical potential and their primary use in traditional medicine.
Expanding Complementary and Alternative CAM Approaches More than 80 percent of people in developing countries cannot afford the most basic medical procedures, drugs, and vaccines.
Among wealthier populations in both developed and developing countries, complementary and alternative practices are popular although proof of their safety and effectiveness is modest.
Evidence-based research in Ayurveda is receiving larger acceptance in India and abroad [ 27 — 30 ]. Its mission is to explore complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science, support sophisticated research, train researchers, disseminate information to the public on the modalities that work, and explain the scientific rationale underlying discoveries.
The center is committed to explore and fund all such therapies for which there is sufficient preliminary data, compelling public health need and ethical justifications [ 31 , 32 ].
Complementary and alternative practices are adjuncts or alternatives to Western medical approaches.
Economic factors influence user behavior. Although social, cultural, and medical reasons account for most of the appeal of traditional approaches, economic factors also play a role. It is assumed that users of these approaches choose them because they are cheaper than conventional therapies or systems. However, several studies have found that CAM approaches cost the same or more than conventional treatments for the same conditions; thus, people seek them out for reasons other than cost.
At least one study showed that financial factors ranked behind such reasons as confidence in the treatment, ease of access, and convenience, in the choice of a traditional healer. Another common misconception is that the poor are more likely to use traditional medicine, but this is not always true.
Nowadays people seek CAM techniques because they believe the side effects will be lower. In both developed and developing countries, users of complementary methods also commonly seek conventional care [ 33 ]. Table 3 enlists some important Ayurvedic herbal formulations [ 34 ].
Table 3: Some important herbal formulations frequently used in traditional Ayurvedic system in India. Nutraceuticals an Evolving Alternative Approach Nutrition is a fundamental need.
Various risk factors related to health result from an imbalance in nutrition. These imbalances in India are widely prevalent leading to adverse outcomes. A certain section of the population consumes diet which does not provide sufficient calories, let alone sufficient nutrients. On the other hand, there is a huge population that is nourished in calorie intake but not in terms of nutrient intake.
This segment would typically include lower middle to upper class population with sufficient downloading capacity but probably less awareness about their nutrient requirements, leading to imbalanced nutritional uptake. The third population segment, which is about 80 million, consumes nutrients and calories more than those recommended for the lifestyle they have opted for. The main leading risk factors in developing countries [ 2 ] are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Risk factors related to nutrition— 1: underweight, 2: unsafe sex, 3: blood pressure, 4: unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, 5: cholesterol, 6: tobacco, 7: indoor smoke from solid fuels, 8: low fruit and vegetable intake, 9: zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, physical inactivity, alcohol, overweight, and unsafe healthcare injections. According to WHO report, India has the largest burden of cardiovascular diseases and largest number of diabetes patients in the world.
The number of cardiovascular diseases patients in Brazil, Russia, China, and India are 4. Likewise the numbers of diabetes patients in same countries are 4. An estimate of the cost of productivity lost on account of mortality due to nutrition-related disorders was estimated to be 0. Even in the population that shows sufficient calorie intake, the micronutrient consumption is not at desired levels.
While the intake of calorie-rich foods may be high, micronutrient-rich foods are being consumed in low proportions. As a result, significant micronutrient deficiencies exist in urban as well as rural areas [ 35 ]. Hence, the requirement of external intervention, that can supplement diet to help prevent nutrition-related disorders and promote wellness over treatment of various diseases, has become a necessity, and such products are known as nutraceuticals. A nutraceutical is a food or food component that claims to have health benefits, including treatment and prevention of disease.
Nutraceuticals, an emerging concept, can be broadly categorized as products which are extracted from natural sources nature-like or manufactured synthetically man-made , which supplement the diet to provide nutrition over and above regular food and help prevent nutrition-related disorders. They do more than just supplement the diet. They, as was pointed out, help with disease prevention and treatment.
Theoretically, the appeal of nutraceuticals is to accomplish treatment goals without side effects. With extensive anecdotal data on exciting health results, nutraceuticals promise significant contributions to disease prevention. United States and Japan are key markets for nutraceutical consumption. Indian nutraceuticals market is about 1 billion USD which is increasing day by day. Globally, this market is expected to reach billion USD in The dietary supplements category is expected to be the fastest growing product category globally [ 2 ].
Herbal Medicines in Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements and herbal remedies are popular complementary or alternative products for people.
These are the supplements that are intended to supplement the diet and contain one or more dietary ingredients including vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and other substances or their constituents. These are intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid and are labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement.
These botanicals are sold in many forms as fresh or dried products, liquid or solid extracts, tablets, capsules, powders, tea bags, and so forth. For example, fresh ginger root is often used in various food stores; dried ginger root is sold packaged in tea bags, capsules, or tablets, and liquid preparations made from ginger root are also sold in the market. A particular group of chemicals or a single chemical may be isolated from a botanical and sold as a dietary supplement, usually in tablet or capsule form.
An example is phytoestrogens from soy products [ 36 ]. Nutraceutical Concept with Varying Definition The nomenclature for nutraceuticals is based on the segments it constitutes. In Canada, this term is natural health products; in USA, it is called dietary supplements, and in Japan it is called foods for special health use.
There are distinct definitions and regulations for dietary supplements and functional foods in USA, Canada, and Europe. In Japan, dietary supplements and functional foods are governed under the same set of regulations. USA and Canada actually list the constituents that a product must have to be called a nutraceutical, whereas Europe and Japan just provide general guidelines on the properties that a product should have to be called a nutraceutical.
Traditional and herbal medicines are included in the definition of dietary or nutritional supplements in Canada. Japan does not mention traditional herbal medicines under functional foods for special health use. USA includes herbal and botanical in its definition.
The Indian definition lists down the ingredients that a product should have, and it also specifies general properties of nutraceutical.
Traditional medicines though have been excluded from the definition. There are three categories which have been considered under the nutraceuticals [ 2 ]. Functional Foods. Dietary Supplements. Functional Beverages. Liquids that quench thirst along with replenishing minerals provide energy, prevent ailments, and promote healthy life style, that is, sports and energy drinks, fortified juices, and glucose drinks and powder.
A product category can be classified into a specific need-segment based on its predominant use. The product segments catering to foundation and condition specific need are the largest and growing the fastest. Nutraceutical products aim to fulfill specific needs of the persons based on which they may be classified as follows. Conclusion Although some uncertainty exists about the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of CAM methods, expanding their use, where reasonable evidence of their effectiveness and good evidence of their safety exists, might yield health, social, and economic benefits [ 35 ].
For example, improving the information and services provided in local pharmacies, that are the primary source of treatment for many ailments in rural areas, might serve as an effective substitute for allowing unregulated use of conventional medical treatment. Thus, expanding CAM would require significant investment of time and resources if it is to be done appropriately and have an impact on population health.
An important role exists for CAM. However, more evidence is needed before CAM approaches can be broadly integrated into national health systems for diseases for which they have promise. Also, numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices.
To truly consume a healthy diet, the vast majority of the diet must be composed of health-promoting foods and nutraceuticals but disease-promoting foods or junk food must be avoided. Ninety percent of the daily diet should be made up of nutrient rich plant foods, whose calories are accompanied by health-promoting phytochemicals, vegetables, fresh fruits, beans and legumes, raw nuts, seeds, and avocados, starchy vegetables, and whole grains.
These foods or nutraceuticals construct a health-promoting, disease-preventing diet with protective substances. The rich nutrient food intake will provide maximum protection against not only infections, asthma, and allergies but also against heart disease and cancer in adulthood. Conflict of Interests The authors do not have any conflict of interests. References V. Subhose, P. Srinivas, and A. Ballabh and O.
Pandey, S. Rastogi, and A.