Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The human machine. byBennett, Arnold, Publication date . Topics Conduct of life. PublisherNew York: G.H. Doran Company. Collectioncdl. ContributorAmerican Printing House for the Blind, Inc., M.C. Migel Library. LanguageEnglish. Author's Edition. Bookplateleaf
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There are men who are capable of loving a machine more deeply than they can love a woman. They are among the happiest men on earth. This is not a sneer. Title: George b bridgman the human machine. Page number ISSUU Downloader is a free to use tool for downloading any book or publication on ISSUU. Print The Human Machine eBook Print Download a Word DOC of The Human Machine eBook Word Download a PDF of The Human Machine eBook PDF.
When compared to the engines of a motor car, the difference is that combustion takes place, not during the driving stroke, but at intervals that separate such strokes. Engines made by man exert their power by pushing, while the human engines move by pulling. Whatever the joint is capa- ble of performing, the muscle is capable of moving. All muscles of the body are set in opposing pairs and in movement they are balanced to each other.
They, with theirSfendons are the instruments, by which animal motion is performed. Besides the muscles just mentioned that move the hinged joints and those that give a rotary motion, there are the muscles that are given an oblique direction as -well as those that run diagonally across a limb. All three portions are directed down- ward. The middle portion is vertical and the inner and outer descend obliquely, to be inserted by a short tendon into the outer surface of the humerus.
Nature allows these three por- tions to work in harmony. The deltoid, when all three por- tions are working, pull the arm up vertically. The portions that pull diagonally from the collar bone, and from the crest of the shoulder blade, carry it forwards and backwards. The pectoralis major muscle twists upon itself when the arm is down. When the arm is extended or raised above the head, its fibres are parallel. When drawing a pectoral seven points should be noted: Where the tendon leaves the arm.
They move from their atachment at the summit of the blade to the collar bone and are raised, lowered, or twisted by muscular force. This girdle, except at its attachment at the sternum, may be raised or lowered; thrown forward or twisted round the static rib cage without interfering in any way with the act of expiration or inspiration. Scapula, shoulder blade , a large flat bone triangular in shape.
It articulates with the col- lar bone at the summit of the shoulder. The serratus m a g n u s muscles follow the ribs. See muscles No. The thorax or rib cage is the cavity enclosed by the ribs, attach- ed to the spine behind and to the sternum in front- The upper ribs are quite short and grow longer till they reach the seventh rib, which is the longest and the last to fasten to the breast bone.
The serratus magnus muscle is seen only at its lower parts as prominent digitations that show on the side of the thorax or rib cage below the arm pit. A large portion of this muscle is covered by the pectoralis major and the latissimus 'dorsi muscles. The external oblique is at- tached above to the lower eight ribs, where they interlock with the serratus magnus.
From here they are carried downward to be attach- ed to the iliac crest. Ill The serratus magnus draws the shoulder blade forward and raises the ribs.
The latissimus dorsi draws the arm backward and in- ward. Its upper border curves backward at the level with the sixth or seventh dorsal vertebrae, as it passes over the lower angle of the shoulder blade. In its attachment to the crest of the ilium, the external oblique forms a thick obljque roll, its base marking the iliac furrow.
When one side of this muscle contracts, it gives the trunk a movement of rotation to the right or left side. When both sides pull, the oblique muscles draw the ribs downward, thus bending the body forward. The serratus magnus muscle forms the inner wall of the arm pit. The ribs have to be lifted by muscular force. The front end of the rib is lowered and raised by muscular force. The muscular bands that en- large and contract the chest pass upward obliquely from pel- vis to the front and sides of the rib cage.
OS t-1 Ribs are long, circular bones.
Seen from the back these bands of bone are not horizontal but oblique from above down- ward. On each side of the medi- an line the transverse processes and the angles of the ribs are sometimes seen. The most con- spicuous of these is the projection known as the seventh cervical the last vertebrae of the neck, 2.
In shape, the thorax back or front is a truncated cone with its base below, its apex above. The lumbar vertebrae, five in number, are the largest seg- ments of the spine. The sacrum is a large trian- gular bone to which two iliac blades of bone are united. There are long strips of muscle that fill up the grooves on each side of the spine. They pass from the lumbar to the dorsal region of the back and diminish in size as they ascend.
At the lumbar region of the spine the erector muscles are seen, as a large fleshy mass just above its attachment to the spines of the sacrum and the latter portions of the ilium sacro lumbalis. They are the oval of the ribs and the squareness of the pelvic region. In the moving of these masses the muscles ex- pand, shorten and bulge.
These bundles of muscles and fibre that sustain the back are covered above and below by an aponeurotic sheathing that covers the small of the back at the loins.
These two large masses must convey to the mind an impression of volume and solidity. The manifold small- er forms, which show on the surface, become secondary. IV L The trapezius muscle arises from the median line of the back from the occipital bone and spinus ligament to be inserted into the spine of the shoulder blade and the outer third of the clavicle. The latissimus dorsi muscle from the spines of dorsal lumbar and sacral-vertebrae. Muscular power act on these masses as levers and allow the body to move forwards and backwards or turn.
The pelvis can be compared to a wheel with only two spokes, the hub is the hip joint and the spokes are the legs which swing back and forth as in walking or running. When force is applied to the long end of a lever, the power is increased. When speed is desired, the lever is shortened.
The muscular power of the human body can only pull upon and bend the levers at the joints, when the masses of the back and pelvis are bent backward or forward, or to the side. The movement of the back is limited to the extent that the bony structure of the spine allows. Each segment of the spine is a lever, upon which the masses of the rib cage and the pelvis bend or turn.
In movement these two masses turn or bend. Muscular fibres fan out- ward and upward to some of the lower ribs. They come from the last dorsal and lumbar vertebrae. The deep muscular layers of the back are the erectors of the spine. The posterior muscles fan outward toward the sides of the ribs. The trapezius and the latissimus dorsi muscles form by themselves the superficial layer of the back.
A trapezium is a geometrical figure having four sides. Above and at the base of the skull the trapezius is carried outward and oblique- ly downward toward the shoulders to be attached to the spine of the shoulder blade at the back and to the outer third of the collar bone in front. The points of the elongated dia- mond shaped trapezius is now complete. The latissimus muscle extends from the region of the loins to the upper part of the arm. It arises from a broad triangular aponeurosis. An aponeurosis is a fibrous expan- sion of the tendon giving attachment to muscular fibres.
This lamina of the latissimus dorsi arises from the fifth or sixth dorsal. To all the spines of the lumbar and upper portion of the sacral to the iliac crest as well as the third or fourth ribs, to be inserted into the humerus at the bottom of the bicipital groove.
The latissimus draws the arm backwards and rotates it inwards as well as help draw the arm down. Trapezius muscle. It shows many depressions and prominences. These are looked upon as landmarks and must be recognized as such. These serrations and grooves must be traced and catalogued. The deltoid can be traced below and outside the crest of the shoulder blade; the trapezius above the crest and inside toward the seventh cervicle.
This muscle also spreads from the inner end of the ridge to well down the spine. Lower down, the latissimus dorsi covers the back. Lying under these two sheets of su- perficial muscle are the muscles that control the movements of the shoulder blades. There is first, the levator angula sca- pulae. This muscle is inserted into the upper border of the shoulder blade. It draws the blade upward in an almost ver- tical direction toward the upper vertebrae of the neck.
The rhomboides muscle is inserted into the base of the scapulae, it takes a diagonal direction upward to the five upper dorsal and the seventh cervicle. The serratus magnus muscle lies between the shoulder blade and the ribs. It draws the in- ferior angle of the blade downward and forward.
The muscles that move the shoulder blade: The acromion process is the outer end of the spine of the shoulder blade. It articulates with the clavicle. The great tuberosity of the humerus. The greater part of the in- fra-spinous fossa of the shoulder blade is covered by the infra- spinatus muscle. The humerus. II L The supra-spinatus muscle: The infra-spinatus: It arises from the back of the shoulder blade to be inserted into the large tuberosity of the humerus.
Teres minor muscle: Teres major muscle: It is a round, thick muscle that ascends upward and outward to be inserted into the humerus at its inner surface near the bicipital groove.
Ill The three muscles, the infra- spinatus, teres minor and teres major, are seen superficially in a triangular space that is bounded by the trapezius, deltoid and latis- simus dorsi. If the arm is raised, the triangle becomes lengthened.
If drawn back toward the spine, the triangle becomes shorter as it closes up. The only articulation the shoulder blades have with the cage is through the collar bones, as this bony girdle moves, the shoulder moves. The shoulder blade slides against the surface of the cage in any direction, and may be lifted from it, so that, its lower angle or its spinal edge becomes prominent under the skin.
The arm is separa- ted at a distance from the shoulder, showing the devices which nature has contrived in order that the arm may be pulled forward, inward or back.
The origin of all the muscles shown are on the shoulder blade, while the insertions on the arm are on both the top, front and back of the humerus. They are so placed, that when pulling against one another, their contracting fibres cause a rotary movement of the arm; These muscles entirely or in part are seen only in the triangular space bound by the trapezius, latissimus dorsi and the deltoid.
Snpra-sjpinatus muscle. Infra-spmatus muscle. Triceps muscle. Humerus bone. Latissimus dorsi jnuscle. Levator anguli scapulae: It elevates and retracts the shcmlder blade. Serratus magnus: The inner border of the shoulder blade parallels the spine when the arm is down. When the arm is raised above, a right angle to the body, the greater tuberosity of the humerus presses the upper rim of the glenoid cavity.
The axis on which the shoulder blade turns, seen from the back is where the collar bone and the crest of the. The shoulder blade or scapula.
The humerus: L lift. I The pelvis consists of two hip bones and a sacrum. The ilium or hip bone con- sists of two upper blades: The sacrum is the keystone of the pelvis. This is a wedge shaped bone that forms the cen- tral piece at the back, the last por- tion of which is called the coccyx.
The acetabulum is the soc- ket of the hip joint; it forms the central point of the shaft of the femur. Great trochanter. The external oblique mus- cle: The gluteus medius: Its descending fibres converge to- ward the great trochanter of the femur into which they are in- serted by heavy tendons. The gluteus maximus: The tensor femoris muscle, lies next the gluteus medius.
It arises from the crest of the ilium. It is directed downward and back- ward on the external surface of the thigh to be inserted into the aponeurosis of the facia lata.
The fibres of the tensor femoris des- cend on the external surface of the thigh to the knee. The facia lata. Ill The weight of the body is sup- ported on the ball shaped head of the femur which is fitted into the socket of the hip bone or pelvis. The body is poised on the head of this thigh bone.
The shaft serves as a crank on which the muscles round the pelvis act. First the gluteus medius abducts and rotates and turns out the thigh. The tensor femoris tenses the facia and rotates the thigh in- ward. IV From the iliac crest, the gluteus medius forms a descending wedge; its front portion over laid by the tensor. The whole of the gluteus maximus muscle passes down and forward to below the great trochanter of the thigh bone completeing the mass of the but- tocks and hips.
The iliac crest is the fulcrum for the lateral muscles, it flares out widely for that purpose, the ilio-tibial band guards the out- side of the thigh becoming more narrow and cord like as it ap- proaches the outer side of the knee.
Gluteus medius. Gluteus maximus. Tenso viginae femorus. Nature has provided a perfect system of columns, levers and pullies to which cords and muscles are attached. When contraction takes place, these muscles and their tendons pull, twist or turn, the movable bones.
The hip joint is a strictly machine-like contrivance. It has at its connection with the hip, a ball and socket joint and a hinge joint at the knee. Gluteus maximus 3 Vastus externus. In the human body there is a framework of bone. Bones are classified as long, short and irregular. Muscles are also classified as to length, size, shape, etc.
Muscles are placed over this framework, to work its various levers, cranks and hinge-like movements. They control the move- ments of the trunk as well as the limbs, to swing the lower limbs as in taking a step forward. The muscular engines of the buttocks act upon the hip joint and the thigh. The ex- tensors in front extend the leg. The hamstrings at the back to move the leg at the knee.
Those at the calf raise the heel and thrust the foot forward. To keep the body erect, the center of gravity must be continually shifting.
It is an adjustment of weight, pressure and quick balancing. Iliac crest. Great trocbanter. The external oblique at- taches above to the eight Icr-vcr ribs below to the iliac crest, 2. Glutens medius: It may be seen lying between the gluteus maximus and the tensor faciae femorus. Gluteus maximus muscle arises from the latter portion of the iliac crest, I'the sacrum and coccyx. The lower half of this muscle is inserted into the back of the femur.
The tensor femorus muscle lies next to the gluteus medius. Its fleshy body is directed down- wards to be inserted into the facia lata. The facia lata descends ver- tically as a band to the outer side of the knee, 5. The iliotibial band of the facia lata. Ill The gluteus maximus and medius muscles fill in the large IV The pelvis, due t: It is th: The mass inclir. So great are the changes in the surface form of the muscles in different positions of the hip.
The posterior curve of the iliac crest is marked by two dimples where it joins the sacrum. From here, the gluteus maximus continues down and forward to just below the head of the thigh bone.
Only a part of the medius is superficial. Only two of these are prominent; they are, the gluteus maximus and the gluteus medius. With the pelvis as a base, these two act on the femur, which acts as a crank shaft. The upper end of the femur is in the shape of a bent lever on which the whole body rests. This cartilage is elastic, taking up the jar which would result if the bones came directly together in contact. It is recognized that no machine has ever been built that maintains a uniform oiling device that equals the lubricating system of the human body.
All joints are completely enclosed by a capsule, which is loose enough to allow the free movement of the levers within the capsule. There are no empty spaces nor apertures for draining that will allow the lubricant to escape. A limb can swing on its hinge or in its socket many times a day for many years without losing its agility.
Provision is made for preventing wear and tear. First by the polish of the carti- laginous surfaces. Second by the healing properties of the lubricating oil, and the way substance is restored and waste repaired, 1. At the hip where the ball and socket joint allows by its construction a rotary or sweeping motion, tendons and muscle pull in such directions as to produce the motion which the joint admits.
It is then capsuled and bound by strong dense liga- ments which embrace the jnargin of the cup, the acetabu- lum , above and surrounding the neck of the femur below. If the joints were not lubricated, they would be stiff and creak like a hinge without oil.
Membrane stretches from bone to bone confining the fluid, which is not dropped as pictured here, but actually made. I L Pubis; of the pelvis 2. The head of the femur 4. The neck of the femur 5. II L The rectus femoris: The adductor jtnuscles, longus and magnus: Vastus externus: The vastus internus: They all meet above and around the knee to a common tendon that is inserted into the patella and continued by a liga- ment to the tubercle of the tibia.
The rectus is seen above as it emerges from between the tensor vaginae femoris and the sartorius. From here it descends vertically on the surface of the thigh to join to its tendon above the knee. The rectus muscle bulges out at a much higher level than the muscles on either side. The outer muscle ends as a triangular tendon to enter the patella above the knee.
The inner is placed quite low on the thigh and seen distinctly at its lower margin. It passes round the inner side of the knee to its inser- tion into the patella.
IV The human body is provided with a system of levers and pullies by which muscles pull on the movable bones. The thigh swings backward as well as forward. When in action, all the muscles that surround the hip joint are geared and set in motion. The triceps of the thigh like the triceps of the arm is composed of three muscles that act together. When they pull, they extend the leg on the thigh.
The mass of the thigh is inclin- ed inward from hip to knee and is slightly beveled as it descends as a rounded form to the flattered planes that border the knee. Rectus fcmoris: Vastus internus: Tensor vaginae femoris: Biceps femoris: Rectus femoris: Rectus femoris muscle. The satorius: Tibialis anticus: It flexes and raises the inner border of the foot. The gluteus medius rotates, abducts and advances the thigh. The tensor vaginae femoris is the tensor of the facia lata.
The gluteus maximus extends, abducts and rotates the thigh outward. The rectus femoris extends the leg. Head of femur. Shaft of femur, [ ] These muscles work against one another in turning the round slippery head of the thigh bone in the socket.
The muscles parallel the shaft to control the action of the knee joint, the extensors of the leg are in front or on top when the thigh is drawn upward, while those that flex the leg on the thigh are at the back.
Vastus internus. Vastus externus. Shaft of the femur. Neck of the femur. Great trochanter of the femur. A common tendon of the two por- tions is inserted into the head of the fibula on the outer side of the knee.
The semi-membranosus one of the hamstrings of the knee is located at the back of the thigh. Above it is fibrous but becomes more muscul- ar on its outer border just above the knee. Insertion of the Biceps. Ill The muscles of the thigh from the back are three in number. They emerge from beneath the gluteus maximus and are seen as two rounded masses descending vertic- ally. The outer mass is formed by a single muscle, the biceps. When you place your first order on HBR. If you click the Speed-Pay button on any product detail page, your order will be charged to the most recent credit card information attached to your account and shipped if applicable to the last address we have on file for you.
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