“Understanding the narcissism epidemic is important because its long-term . on various essays) AND the actual PDF of Self-Reliance we've got in the bonus. PDF | On Jun 1, , Richard M Waugaman and others published The Narcissism Epidemic, edited by Jean W. Twenge & W. Keith Campbell. PDF | Comments on the original article by Paris (see record ) regarding narcissistic personality disorder. The current authors.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
Editorial Reviews. From Booklist. Twenge and Campbell, psychologists and authors of previous books on self-admiration, team up for a thorough look at a. Narcissism—an inflated view of the self—is everywhere. Public figures say it's what makes them stray from their wives. Parents teach it by dressing children in. Empirical evidence for the narcissism epidemic .. (PDF). Acknowledgments. We wish to thank Dr. Ramzi Fatfouta and three unknown.
Therefore, we estimated all invariance models for overall and facet-level narcissism separately for major ethnic groups.
First, we divided the sample into Asians and non-Asians since it has been suggested that a large Asian sample might hinder finding increases in narcissism.
It is unclear what effect, if any, including Asian samples in the analyses would have on decreases in narcissism. Second, we ran the analyses separately for Caucasians, Asians, and African Americans since differences in narcissism scores have been reported for these ethnic groups.
Asians and non-Asians.
Model fit was similar to that reported for the analyses with the whole sample i. For the Asian sample, seven items were non-invariant between the s and the 7 In addition to the separate analyses for overall narcissism and the facets, we also ran bi- factor models at the cohorts and year-by-year level.
Cohort differences in narcissism 22 other two cohorts for overall narcissism. Three items were non-invariant in the invariance models analyzing only the non-Asian sample see Table S3. In the multidimensional models, seven items showed non-invariance for Asians including the intercept of item 9, which showed moderate to large non-invariance. For non-Asians, the multidimensional models revealed that eight items were non-invariant including the intercept of item 9 see Table 2. Thus, including Asian samples attenuated the overall decrease in narcissism.
However, there were no significant changes in entitlement. Importantly, this decrease already started between the s and s and only continued more strongly between the s and s see Table 3. Overall, the effects of decreasing means on the facets of narcissism for the non-Asian subsample were slightly stronger than those reported for the whole sample with the exception of vanity, where no change was found.
The Asian subsample showed a pattern of results that Cohort differences in narcissism 23 differed from the non-Asian subsample, in particular with respect to an increase on the vanity facet. Caucasians, Asians, and African Americans. For Caucasians and Asians, full invariance held in both the overall narcissism and facets models. For African Americans, four items showed non-invariance between the s and the s cohort in the models on overall narcissism and three items in the models on the facets of narcissism see Table S13 in the Supplemental Material.
Table 4 shows latent mean differences between the s and the s cohorts on overall narcissism and the facets. The mean differences at the facet level were similar between the Caucasian and Asian subsamples regarding leadership and entitlement, indicating a negligible to small decline on both facets see Table 4.
In sum, all ethnic groups showed decreases in overall narcissism and leadership from the s to the s, though they were strongest for African Americans. All ethnic groups Cohort differences in narcissism 24 furthermore showed a slight decline in entitlement. For vanity, results differed across ethnic groups, with no change for Asians, and a small decrease for African Americans and Caucasians.
Do Results Replicate for Men and Women? We summarize the results on mean differences here and refer the interested reader to the detailed results in the online Supplemental Material Tables S14 to S Discussion Cohort differences in narcissism 28 The present study evaluated the claim that the United States faces a narcissism epidemic among young people, with dramatically rising rates of narcissism occurring over the past few decades.
Contrary to this claim, we found evidence that narcissism levels have been slowly declining from the s to the s. Six features of our research make this finding particularly compelling. First, our results are based on a very large sample of students from three different universities. Second, the decline was evident both for overall narcissism levels and for the specific facets of leadership, vanity, and entitlement.
Third, the decline persisted after controlling for measurement non-invariance. Fourth, the decline was continuous over time, indicating that there was no rise in narcissism before purported historical factors such as the recession of Fifth, the decline held for major ethnic groups and no ethnic group showed the overall increase predicted by proponents of the narcissism epidemic.
Sixth, the findings were consistent across men and women.
The Importance of Measurement Invariance In the current study, we considered for the first time whether students from different cohorts reacted similarly to the items on the NPI.
We found pervasive measurement non- invariance across multiple items. For example, item 9 I am no better or no worse than most people. Students with equal trait levels on vanity, but from the s, endorsed the narcissistic response option I think I am a special person more frequently than students from the s and s.
However, despite containing multiple items that showed measurement non-invariance, the overall narcissism score was not adversely affected. On the other hand, the effect of measurement non-invariance was more substantial for two of the facets of narcissism, leadership and vanity.
Leadership and vanity showed non- Cohort differences in narcissism 29 invariance both at the level of individual items and at the scale level, indicating that means from a traditional scoring approach would be biased.
Importantly, this bias can go in both directions. In our model-based analyses, the full invariance model overestimated the decrease in leadership whereas it underestimated the decrease in vanity compared with the final partial invariance model that controls for non-invariance.
This finding provides a cautionary tale for those who trust that measures will work similarly across time and use simple indicators such as internal consistency to evaluate whether measures are equivalent. Ethnicity Matters in the Analysis of Generational Changes in Narcissism We found that with respect to generational changes on narcissism, ethnicity matters. In our separate analyses for Asians and non-Asians, fewer items were non-invariant compared with the whole sample. This indicates that cross-ethnicity non-invariance may have been confounded with cross-cohort non-invariance in our analyses of the whole sample.
Results on mean differences also differed strongly between Asian and non-Asian subsamples as well as between Caucasian, Asian, and African American subsamples. Moreover, the findings were unexpected. Past arguments have been made that including Asian populations in cross-cohort analyses may dampen the putative increases in narcissism across cohorts.
We found rather that the inclusion of Asian students in the samples may have dampened the evidence for decreases in narcissism in non-Asian populations across cohorts.
In fact, Asian students showed an increase in vanity whereas non-Asians showed a decrease in vanity.
Consistently across ethnic groups, decreases in leadership were found. This decrease was strongest for African Americans. African Americans also showed stronger decreases in vanity between the s and the s compared with the other ethnic groups and the overall trend in the complete sample.
Limitations and Future Directions This study was based on large student samples from different cohorts. Nevertheless, the data came from only three universities, and the data for the s cohort came from a different university than the data for the s and s cohorts.
Far less is known about potential changes in narcissism in non-student samples. Future research should test cohort differences in narcissism in non-student samples. The s cohort was much smaller than the other two cohorts and this may be one reason why measurement non-invariance was mainly found with respect to the s cohort.
Our year-by-year analyses of the University of California, Davis and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign students indicated that among the s and s year groups, a number of NPI items also showed non-invariance. The analyses were based on the NPI, a narcissism inventory with known psychometric problems e. Nevertheless, it would be interesting to investigate whether the cohort differences found here can be confirmed when other narcissism questionnaires are studied.
As our results show a Cohort differences in narcissism 31 decrease, rather than an increase, in narcissism, researchers may now need to explain this decline instead of speculating on why culture has led to an increase in narcissism. Considering the implications of measurement non-invariance, future research on generational changes should take measurement invariance across cohorts into account. In fact, we found small decreases both in overall narcissism and in the leadership, vanity, and entitlement facets.
Importantly, these decreases already started between the s and the s and only continued more strongly in the late s and s. Cohort differences in narcissism 32 References Ackerman, R.
The effect of response format on the psychometric properties of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Consequences for item meaning and factor structure.
An item response theory analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94 2 , What does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory really measure? Assessment, 18 1 , Cohort differences in personality in middle-aged women during a year period. Results from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 38 5 , Has there been a recent increase in adolescent narcissism? Evidence from a sample of at-risk adolescents Personality and Individual Differences, 87, Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.
Psychological Science, 25 7 , Item response modeling of forced-choice questionnaires. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 71 3 , Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance.
Psychological Bulletin, 3 , Clinical Psychology Review, 28, Donnellan, M. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3 5 , An emerging epidemic of narcissism or much ado about nothing? Journal of Research in Personality, 43 3 , Factor analysis and construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.
Journal of Personality Assessment, 48 3 , Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world.
Journal of Research in Personality, 37 6 , Gender differences in narcissism: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 2 , The consequences of ignoring measurement invariance for path coefficients in structural equation models. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Telematics and Informatics, 28 2 , Power and sensitivity of alternative fit indices in tests of measurement invariance.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 93 3 , Seven Billion Kinds of Special: Uniqueness; Chapter The Quest for Infamy and the Rise of Incivility: Antisocial Behavior; Chapter The Chocolate Cake Trap: Relationship Troubles; Chapter All Play and No Work: Entitlement; Chapter Religion and Volunteering; Section 4: Prognosis and Treatment; Chapter The Prognosis: Narcissism -- a very positive and inflated view of the self -- is everywhere.
It's the value that parents teach their children with song lyrics like "I am special. Look at me," the skill teenagers and young adults obsessively hone on Facebook and MySpace, and the reason high school students physically beat classmates and then broadcast their violence on YouTube for all to see.
It's the message preached by prosperity gospel and the vacuous ethos spread by celebrity newsmakers. And it's what's making people depressed, lonely, and buried under piles of debt. Jean M. Twenge's influential and controversial first book, Generation Me , generated a national debate with its trenchant depiction of the challenges twenty- and thirtysomethings face emotionally and professionally in today's world -- and the fallout these issues create for older generations as well as employers.
Now, Dr. Twenge is on to a new incendiary topic that has repercussions for every age-group and class: Twenge joins forces with W. Keith Campbell, Ph. Every day, you encounter the real costs of narcissism: Even the world economy has been damaged by risky, unrealistic overconfidence.
As a society, we have a chance to slow the epidemic of narcissism once we learn to identify it, minimize the forces that sustain and transmit it, and treat it where we find it. Drawing on their own extensive research as well as decades of other experts' studies, Drs.
Twenge and Campbell show us how.