Building information modeling pdf

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PDF | 25 minutes read | Hand-drafted print, sketching and hand modeling were the standard for building designs before the advent of computer. PDF | On Apr 25, , Runddy Ramilo and others published Building Information Modelling: Challenges and Barriers Among Architectural Practices. of Building Information Modelling by the European Public Sector. Strategic action for construction sector performance: driving value, innovation and growth.

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Building Information Modeling Pdf

the uses and benefits of BIM in the construction of a research facility. Subsequently, a prototype 4D Building Information Model was created and studied. With the growth of information technologies in the field of construction industry over the last years, numerical building information modeling and process. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is and to also provide a detailed look at ., December.

In , Autodesk released a white paper entitled "Building Information Modeling," [8] and other software vendors also started to assert their involvement in the field. A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition. Building information modeling extends this beyond 3D , augmenting the three primary spatial dimensions width, height and depth with time as the fourth dimension 4D [20] and cost as the fifth 5D. It also covers spatial relationships, light analysis, geographic information, and quantities and properties of building components for example, manufacturers' details. BIM involves representing a design as combinations of "objects" — vague and undefined, generic or product-specific, solid shapes or void-space oriented like the shape of a room , that carry their geometry, relations and attributes. BIM design tools allow extraction of different views from a building model for drawing production and other uses. These different views are automatically consistent, being based on a single definition of each object instance. This reduces information losses that traditionally occurred when a new team takes 'ownership' of the project, and provides more extensive information to owners of complex structures. BIM throughout the project life-cycle[ edit ] Use of BIM goes beyond the planning and design phase of the project, extending throughout the building life cycle. The supporting processes of building lifecycle management includes cost management , construction management , project management , facility operation and application in green building. Management of building information models[ edit ] Building information models span the whole concept-to-occupation time-span. To ensure efficient management of information processes throughout this span, a BIM manager also sometimes defined as a virtual design-to-construction , VDC, project manager — VDCPM might be appointed. The BIM manager is retained by a design build team on the client's behalf from the pre-design phase onwards to develop and to track the object-oriented BIM against predicted and measured performance objectives, supporting multi-disciplinary building information models that drive analysis, schedules, take-off and logistics. BIM additionally is able to aid in collision detection, identifying the exact location of discrepancies. The BIM concept envisages virtual construction of a facility prior to its actual physical construction, in order to reduce uncertainty, improve safety, work out problems, and simulate and analyze potential impacts.

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Other related benefits are: Faster and more effective processes — information is more easily shared, can be value-added and reused.

Better design — building proposals can be rigorously analyzed, simulations can be performed quickly and performance benchmarked, enabling improved and innovative solutions. Controlled whole-life costs and environmental data — environmental performance is more predictable, lifecycle costs are better understood.

Building Information Modeling

Better production quality — documentation output is flexible and exploits automation. Better customer service — proposals are better understood through accurate visualization. Lifecycle data — requirements, design, construction and operational information can be used in facilities management. The main findings of their study are as follows: The use of BIM is significantly increased across all phases of design and construction during the last one year.

BIM users represent all segments of the design and construction industry and they operate throughout the US. The major application areas of BIM are, construction document development, conceptual design support and pre-project planning services.

The use of BIM lowers overall risk distributed with a similar contract structure. The use of BIM leads to increased productivity, better engagement of project staff and reduced contingencies. Currently there is a shortage of competent building information modelers in the construction industry and their demand will exponentially grow with the passage of time. The main objective of the survey was to identify the most important requirements that AEC professionals would like BIM solutions software to satisfy.

Based on the compiled results, the 10 most important requirements were found to be: Full support for producing construction documents so that another drafting application need not be used.

Smart objects, which maintain associativity, connectivity, and relationships with other objects. Availability of object libraries.

BIM Library | GSA

Ability to support distributed work processes, with multiple team members working on the same project. Quality of help and supporting documentation, tutorials, and other learning resources. Ability to work on large projects. Multi-disciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP. Ability to support preliminary conceptual design modeling. Direct integration with energy analysis, structural analysis and project management applications.

Industry foundation classes IFC compatibility. She concluded that the AEC industry is still very much reliant on drawings for conducting its business of designing and constructing buildings as evident from the survey results.

At the same time, AEC professionals also realize the power of BIM for more efficient and intelligent modeling by placing a high premium on smart objects that maintain associativity, connectivity, and relationships with other objects and the availability of object libraries.

She pointed out that users want a BIM application that not only leverages the powerful documentation and visualization capabilities of a CAD platform but also support multiple design and management operations. Dean carried out a research study to examine if BIM should be taught as a subject to the construction management students. He conducted two questionnaire surveys targeted at general contractors and ASC construction management programs in the Southeast.

Building Information Modeling For Dummies

Based on the gathered data, he concluded in general that construction management programs should teach BIM to their students. This trend indicates that the BIM utilization in the construction industry is going to increase.

In another study, Woo pointed out that properly structured BIM courses would provide industry-required knowledge to prepare students for successful careers in the AEC industry. Instead of teaching a separate course, he suggested to reconfigure the existing construction courses to integrate BIM into the course contents.

However, no data was provided to quantify these facts. The purpose of this case study is to illustrate the cost and time savings realized by developing and using a building information model for an actual construction project. These models were created during the design development phase using detail level information from subcontractors based on drawings from the designers. The collaborative 3D viewing sessions also improved communications and trust between stakeholders and enabled rapid decision making early in the process.

The probable reason for this spread is varying scope of BIM in different projects.

In some projects, BIM savings were measured using 'real' construction phase 'direct' collision detection cost avoidance, and in other projects, savings were computed using 'planning' or 'value analysis' phase cost avoidance.

Also, note that none of these cost figures account for indirect, design, construction or owner administrative or other 'second wave' cost savings that were realized as a result of BIM implementation. For example, if the owner is paying for the design, then the owner may feel entitled to own it, but if team members are providing proprietary information for use on the project, their propriety information needs to be protected as well.

Thus, there is no simple answer to the question of data ownership; it requires a unique response to every project depending on the participants' needs. The goal is to avoid inhibitions or disincentives that discourage participants from fully realizing the model's potential Thompson, For example, equipment and material vendors offer designs associated with their products for the convenience of the lead designer in hopes of inducing the designer to specify the vendor's equipment.

While this practice might be good for business, licensing issues can nevertheless arise if the vendor's design was produced by a designer not licensed in the location of the project Thompson and Miner, Another issue to address is who will control the entry of data into the model and be responsible for any inaccuracies in it.

Taking responsibility for updating BIM data and ensuring its accuracy entails a great deal of risk.


Requests for complicated indemnities by BIM users and the offer of limited warranties and disclaimers of liability by designers will be essential negotiation points that need to be resolved before BIM technology is utilized. It also requires more time spent imputing and reviewing BIM data, which is a new cost in the design and project administration process.

Although these new costs may be more than offset by efficiency and schedule gains, they are still a cost that someone on the project team will have to bear. Thus, before BIM technology can be fully utilized, the risks of its use must not only be identified and allocated, but the cost of its implementation must be paid for as well Thompson and Miner, The integrated concept of BIM blurs the level of responsibility so much that risk and liability will likely be enhanced.

Consider the scenario where the owner of the building files suit over a perceived design error. The architect, engineers and other contributors of the BIM process look to each other in an effort to try to determine who had responsibility for the matter raised. If disagreement ensues, the lead professional will not only be responsible as a matter of law to the claimant but may have difficulty proving fault with others such as the engineers Rosenburg, As the dimensions of cost and schedule are layered onto the 3D model, responsibility for the proper technological interface among various programs becomes an issue.

Many sophisticated contracting teams require subcontractors to submit detailed CPM schedules and cost breakdowns itemized by line items of work prior to the start of the project. The general contractor then compiles that data, creating a master schedule and cost breakdown for the entire project. When the subcontractors and prime contractor use the same software, the integration can be fluid. In cases where the data is incomplete or is submitted in a variety of scheduling and costing programs, a team member - usually a general contractor or construction manager must re-enter and update a master scheduling and costing program.

That program may be a BIM module or another program that will be integrated with the 3-D model. At present, most of these project management tools and the 3-D models have been developed in isolation.

Responsibility for the accuracy and coordination of cost and scheduling data must be contractually addressed Thompson and Miner, Further, the technology to implement BIM is readily available and rapidly maturing.

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