SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE. WWW. The NetaJi Publishing Society has great pleasure in present- ing to the public the unfinished utobiography of`Netaji Sub-. This biography of Subhas Chandra Bose, gives equal . 1Hari Hara Das and B.C Rath, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: Reassessment of his. This book deals with the modern period of Indian history. Elfort has been made in this book to lay NCERT History - Mode.
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Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was an important leader of Indian independence movement. This Biography profiles his childhood, life, achievements and death. Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January – 18 August ) was an Indian nationalist whose .. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport at Kolkata, Netaji Subhash Chandra .. the Raj: a biography of Indian nationalists Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose, .. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. The famous freedom fighter Netaji Subhas Chandra. Bose was born on January 23, at Oriya bazaar of. Cuttack district Orissa. His father Janaki Nath Bose.
This was the only civilian transfer between two submarines of two different navies in World War II. The Indian National Army INA was the brainchild of Japanese Major and post-war Lieutenant-General Iwaichi Fujiwara , head the Japanese intelligence unit Fujiwara Kikan and had its origins, first in the meetings between Fujiwara and the president of the Bangkok chapter of the Indian Independence League , Pritam Singh Dhillon , and then, through Pritam Singh's network, in the recruitment by Fujiwara of a captured British Indian army captain, Mohan Singh on the western Malayan peninsula in December ; Fujiwara's mission was "to raise an army which would fight alongside the Japanese army.
This was along the concept of—and with support of—what was then known as the Indian Independence League , headed by expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose. Mohan Singh was taken into custody and the troops returned to the prisoner-of-war camp.
However, the idea of an independence army was revived with the arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose in the Far East in Bose was able to reorganise the fledgling army and organise massive support among the expatriate Indian population in south-east Asia, who lent their support by both enlisting in the Indian National Army, as well as financially in response to Bose's calls for sacrifice for the independence cause.
Lakshmi Swaminathan , which is seen as a first of its kind in Asia. Even when faced with military reverses, Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement. Spoken as a part of a motivational speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in Burma on 4 July , Bose's most famous quote was "Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom! The troops of the INA were under the aegis of a provisional government, the Azad Hind Government, which came to produce its own currency, postage stamps, court and civil code, and was recognised by nine Axis states — Germany, Japan, Italian Social Republic , the Independent State of Croatia , Wang Jingwei regime in Nanjing , China, a provisional government of Burma, Manchukuo and Japanese-controlled Philippines.
Recent researches [ which? This government participated in the so-called Greater East Asia Conference as an observer in November INA's special forces, the Bahadur Group, were extensively involved in operations behind enemy lines both during the diversionary attacks in Arakan, as well as the Japanese thrust towards Imphal and Kohima , along with the Burmese National Army led by Ba Maw and Aung San.
Loganathan appointed its Governor General. The islands were renamed Shaheed Martyr and Swaraj Independence.
However, the Japanese Navy remained in essential control of the island's administration. During Bose's only visit to the islands in early , apparently in the interest of shielding Bose from attaining a full knowledge of ultimate Japanese intentions, Bose's Japanese hosts carefully isolated him from the local population. At that time the island's Japanese administration had been torturing the leader of the island's Indian Independence League, Dr. Diwan Singh , who later died of his injuries in the Cellular Jail.
During Bose's visit to the islands several locals attempted to alert Bose to Dr. Singh's plight, but apparently without success.
During this time Lt. Col Loganathan became aware of his lack of any genuine administrative control and resigned in protest as Governor General, later returning to the Government's headquarters in Rangoon. On the Indian mainland, an Indian Tricolour, modelled after that of the Indian National Congress , was raised for the first time in the town of Moirang , in Manipur , in north-eastern India.
During this operation, On 6 July , in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore, Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation" and asked for his blessings and good wishes for the war he was fighting. This was the first time that Gandhi was referred to by this appellation.
Through several months of Japanese onslaught on these two towns, Commonwealth forces remained entrenched in the towns. Commonwealth forces then counter-attacked, inflicting serious losses on the Axis led forces, who were then forced into a retreat back into Burmese territory.
After the Japanese defeat at the battles of Kohima and Imphal, Bose's Provisional Government's aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost forever.
However, with the fall of Rangoon , Bose's government ceased to be an effective political entity. The remaining troops retreated with Bose towards Malaya or made for Thailand. Japan's surrender at the end of the war also led to the surrender of the remaining elements of the Indian National Army. The INA prisoners were then repatriated to India and some tried for treason. Bose's ashes are stored in the temple in a golden pagoda.
In the consensus of scholarly opinion, Subhas Chandra Bose's death occurred from third-degree burns on 18 August after his overloaded Japanese plane crashed in Japanese-ruled Formosa now Taiwan. In Taihoku , at around 2: Yoshimi immediately saw evidence of third-degree burns on many parts of the body, especially on his chest, doubting very much that he would live.
Yoshimi promptly began to treat Bose and was assisted by Dr. Gordon , who interviewed all the hospital personnel later,. A disinfectant, Rivamol , was put over most of his body and then a white ointment was applied and he was bandaged over most of his body.
Yoshimi gave Bose four injections of Vita Camphor and two of Digitamine for his weakened heart. These were given about every 30 minutes.
Since his body had lost fluids quickly upon being burnt, he was also given Ringer solution intravenously. A third doctor, Dr. Ishii gave him a blood transfusion. An orderly, Kazuo Mitsui, an army private, was in the room and several nurses were also assisting.
Bose still had a clear head which Dr. Yoshimi found remarkable for someone with such severe injuries. Soon, in spite of the treatment, Bose went into a coma. Bose's body was cremated in the main Taihoku crematorium two days later, 20 August Among the INA personnel, there was widespread disbelief, shock, and trauma.
Most affected were the young Tamil Indians from Malaya and Singapore, both men and women, who comprised the bulk of the civilians who had enlisted in the INA. He was undoubtedly a patriot, though misguided. Some saw the INA as traitors and wanted them punished; others felt more sympathetic. Bose was featured on the stamps in India from , , , , and Netaji is a much respected name in Japan. It was on this occasion that Netaji used this chair for the first time.
Later the chair was kept at the residence of Netaji at 51, University Avenue, Rangoon, where the office of the Azad Hind Government was also housed. Afterwards, at the time of leaving Burma, the Britishers handed over the chair to the family of Mr. Ahuja, the well known business man of Rangoon. The chair was officially handed over to the Government of India in January It was brought to Calcutta on the 17th July, It has now been ceremonially installed at the Red Fort on July 7, Bose advocated complete unconditional independence for India, whereas the All-India Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through Dominion status.
Finally at the historic Lahore Congress convention, the Congress adopted Purna Swaraj complete independence as its motto. Gandhi was given rousing receptions wherever he went after Gandhi-Irwin pact.
Subhas Chandra Bose, travelling with Gandhi in these endeavours, later wrote that the great enthusiasm he saw among the people enthused him tremendously and that he doubted if any other leader anywhere in the world received such a reception as Gandhi did during these travels across the country. He was imprisoned and expelled from India.
Defying the ban, he came back to India and was imprisoned again. Bose was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms, but had to resign from the post following ideological conflicts with Mohandas K.
Gandhi and after openly attacking the Congress' foreign and internal policies. Bose believed that Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule.
He was imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His stance did not change with the outbreak of the Second World War , which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. At the outset of the war, he left India, travelling to the Soviet Union , Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan , seeking an alliance with each of them to attack the British government in India.
With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped and led the Indian National Army in failed military campaigns against the allies at Imphal and in Burma. His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and other militarist regimes at war with Britain have been the cause of arguments among historians and politicians, with some accusing him of fascist sympathies, while others in India have been more sympathetic towards the realpolitik that guided his social and political choices.
Subhas Chandra Bose believed that the Bhagavad Gita was a great source of inspiration for the struggle against the British. The fresh interpretation of the India's ancient scriptures had appealed immensely to him. This set him apart from the slowly growing number of atheistic socialists and communists who dotted the Indian landscape. Bose first expressed his preference for "a synthesis of what modern Europe calls socialism and fascism " in a speech in Calcutta.
Bose's correspondence prior to reflects his deep disapproval of the racist practices of, and annulment of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany: Bose had clearly expressed his belief that democracy was the best option for India.
His most famous quote was "Give me blood and I will give you freedom". Jai Hind , or, "Glory to India! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Indian nationalist leader and politician. Not to be confused with N. Chandra Bose. For the Irula-language film, see Netaji film. For the television series, see Netaji TV Series. Taihoku , Japanese Taiwan present-day Taipei.
Indian National Congress Forward Bloc — Ravenshaw Collegiate Scottish Church College. University of Calcutta Fitzwilliam College.
Main articles: Main article: Death of Subhas Chandra Bose. My fate is with them. But as the Japanese plane took off from Taipei airport its engines faltered and then failed. Bose was badly burned in the crash. According to several witnesses, he died on 18 August in a Japanese military hospital, talking to the very last of India's freedom.
British and Indian commissions later established convincingly that Bose had died in Taiwan. These were legendary and apocalyptic times, however. Having witnessed the first Indian leader to fight against the British since the great mutiny of , many in both Southeast Asia and India refused to accept the loss of their hero.
Rumours that Bose had survived and was waiting to come out of hiding and begin the final struggle for independence were rampant by the end of But like a meteor which enters the earth's atmosphere, he burned brightly on the horizon for a brief moment only. But in death he was a martyred patriot whose memory could be an ideal tool for political mobilization. His alliance with the most genocidal regime in history poses serious dilemmas precisely because of his popularity and his having made a lifelong career of fighting the 'good cause'.
How did a man who started his political career at the feet of Gandhi end up with Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo? Even in the case of Mussolini and Tojo, the gravity of the dilemma pales in comparison to that posed by his association with Hitler and the Nazi leadership.
The most disturbing issue, all too often ignored, is that in the many articles, minutes, memorandums, telegrams, letters, plans, and broadcasts Bose left behind in Germany, he did not express the slightest concern or sympathy for the millions who died in the concentration camps.
Not one of his Berlin wartime associates or colleagues ever quotes him expressing any indignation. Not even when the horrors of Auschwitz and its satellite camps were exposed to the world upon being liberated by Soviet troops in early , revealing publicly for the first time the genocidal nature of the Nazi regime, did Bose react.
Nevertheless, the success of his soldiers in Burma had stirred as much patriotic sentiment among Indians as the sacrifices of imprisoned Congress leaders.
The force that he put together Bose himself died in an aeroplane crash trying to reach Japanese-occupied territory in the last months of the war. It is this heroic, martial myth that is today remembered, rather than Bose's wartime vision of a free India under the authoritarian rule of someone like himself. Vyas has given his view of how the term was adopted: We improved upon it: It must be mentioned, that Subhas Bose strongly disapproved of it. He began to yield only when he saw our military group Other biographers have written that Bose and Miss Schenkl were married in , while Krishna Bose, implying , leaves the date ambiguous.
The strangest and most confusing testimony comes from A. Nambiar, who was with the couple in Badgastein briefly in , and was with them in Berlin during the war as second-in-command to Bose. In an answer to my question about the marriage, he wrote to me in I can imagine the marriage having been a very informal one So what are we left with? We know they had a close passionate relationship and that they had a child, Anita, born November 29, , in Vienna.
And we have Emilie Schenkl's testimony that they were married secretly in Whatever the precise dates, the most important thing is the relationship. Some two million Indians were living in Southeast Asia when the Japanese seized control of that region, and these emigrees were the first "citizens" of that government, founded under the "protection" of Japan and headquartered on the "liberated" Andaman Islands.
Bose declared war on the United States and Great Britain the day after his government was established. In January he moved his provisional capital to Rangoon and started his Indian National Army on their march north to the battle cry of the Meerut mutineers: A number of Japanese officers, even those like Fujiwara , who were devoted to the Indian cause, saw Bose as a military incompetent as well as an unrealistic and stubborn man who saw only his own needs and problems and could not see the larger picture of the war as the Japanese had to.
Bose's INA consisted of about 20, of the British Indian soldiers captured by the Japanese in Singapore, who had volunteered to serve under Netaji Bose when he offered them "Freedom" if they were willing to risk their "Blood" to gain Indian independence a year earlier. The British considered Bose and his "army of traitors" no better than their Japanese sponsors, but to most of Bengal's 50 million Indians, Bose was a great national hero and potential "Liberator.
In May , Bose would fly out of Saigon on an overloaded Japanese plane, headed for Taiwan, which crash-landed and burned. Bose suffered third-degree burns and died in the hospital on Formosa.
But Bose still remained optimistic, thought of regrouping after the Japanese surrender, contemplated seeking help from Soviet Russia. The Japanese agreed to provide him transport up to Manchuria from where he could travel to Russia.
But on his way, on 18 August at Taihoku airport in Taiwan, he died in an air crash, which many Indians still believe never happened. In Bengal it became an assurance of the province's supreme importance in the liberation of the motherland. It sustained the morale of many across India and Southeast Asia who deplored the return of British power or felt alienated from the political settlement finally achieved by Gandhi and Nehru.
That was the closest Bose came to Bengal, where millions of his devoted followers awaited his army's "liberation. Bose had promised his men freedom in exchange for their blood, but the tide of battle turned against them after the rains, and in May the INA surrendered in Rangoon.
Bose escaped on the last Japanese plane to leave Saigon, but he died in Formosa after a crash landing there in August. By that time, however, his death had been falsely reported so many times that a myth soon emerged in Bengal that Netaji Subhas Chandra was alive—raising another army in China or Tibet or the Soviet Union—and would return with it to "liberate" India.
Although initially aligned with the Indian National Congress, he was ousted from the party due to his difference in ideology.
His sudden disappearance post , led to surfacing of various theories, concerning the possibilities of his survival. Subhash was the ninth child among eight brothers and six sisters. His father, Janakinath Bose, was an affluent and successful lawyer in Cuttack and received the title of "Rai Bahadur".
He later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council. Subhash Chandra Bose was a brilliant student. He passed his B. He was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda's teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. In an incident where Bose beat up his professor E.
Otten for his racist remarks, brought him notoriety as a rebel-Indian in eyes of the government. His father wanted Netaji to become a civil servant and therefore, sent him to England to appear for the Indian Civil Service Examination.
Bose was placed fourth with highest marks in English. But his urge for participating in the freedom movement was intense and in April , he resigned from the coveted Indian Civil Service and came back to India.
In December , Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organizing a boycott of the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales' visit to India. During his stay in Berlin, he met and fell in love with Emily Schenkl, who was of Austrian origin. Bose and Emily were married in in a secret Hindu ceremony and Emily gave birth to a daughter Anita in Shortly after the birth of their daughter, Bose left Germany in to come back to India.
Bose regarded Chittaranjan Das as his political guru.
Subhash Chandra Bose played an important role in enlightening the students, youths and labourers of Calcutta. In his fervent wait to see India as an independent, federal and republic nation, he emerged as a charismatic and firebrand youth icon.
He was admired within the congress for his great ability in organization development. He served several stints in prison for his nationalist activities during this time. In , during the Guwahati Session of the Congress, a difference of opinion surfaced between the old and new members of the Congress. The differences between moderate Gandhi and aggressive Subhash Chandra Bose swelled to irreconcilable proportions and Bose decided to resign from the party in He went on to form the Forward Bloc the same year.
Although he voiced his dislike for the British often in his correspondences, he also expressed his admiration for their structured way of life. Haldane, Arthur Greenwood, G.
Cole, and Sir Stafford Cripps and discussed the possibilities that an independent India might hold. Image Credit: