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A procedural language specifies a series of steps for the program to solve the problem. A procedural language breaks the program into functions, data structures, etc. C is a procedural language.
In C, variables and function prototypes must be declared before being used.
Structure means to break a program into parts or blocks so that it may be easy to understand. In the C language, we break the program into parts using functions. It makes the program easier to understand and modify. C language program is converted into assembly code, it supports pointer arithmetic low-level , but it is machine independent a feature of high-level. A Low-level language is specific to one machine, i. It is machine dependent, fast to run.
But it is not easy to understand.
It was invented for implementing UNIX operating system. C is most widely used programming language even today. All other programming languages were derived directly or indirectly from C programming concepts.
This tutorial explains all basic concepts in C like history of C language, data types, keywords, constants, variables, operators, expressions, control statements, array, pointer, string, library functions, structures and unions etc. This C programming tutorial is designed for the new learners, students and also for the corporate level developers who want to learn and refresh their C programming skills.
The C language is a structure oriented programming language, was developed at Bell Laboratories in by Dennis Ritchie. C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system…. Steps to be followed for any C program to create and get the output are explained. This is common to all C programs and there is no exception, whether its a very small C program or very large program. Structure of a C program is defined by a set of rules called protocol, to be followed by programmer while writing a C program… more….
C data types are defined as the data storage format that a variable can store a data to perform a specific operation. Data types are used to define a variable before using in a program. Size of variable, const and array are determined by data types.
There are four data types in the C language. They are….
C tokens, Identifiers and Keywords are the basics in a C program. All are explained in this page with definition and simple example programs. C tokens are the basic building blocks in C language which are constructed together to write a C program. Each program element in a C program is given a name called identifiers…. C Constants are also like normal variables.
Constants refer to fixed values. They are also called as literals. Constants may be belonging to any of the data type…. C variable is a named location in a memory where a program can manipulate the data. This location is used to hold the value of the variable.
The value of the C variable may get changed in the program. The C variable might be belonging to any of the data types like int, float, char etc…. The symbols which are used to perform logical and mathematical operations in a C program are called C operators. These C operators join individual constants and variables to form expressions.
Operators, functions, constants and variables are combined together to form expressions…. In decision control statements C — if else and nested if , group of statement is executed when the condition is true. If the condition is false, then, else part statements are executed. In C programming, there are 3 types of decision making control statements in C language. Loop control statements in C programming are used to perform looping operations until the given condition is true.
Control comes out of the loop statements once the condition becomes false. There are 3 types of loop control statements in C language.
The statements which are used to execute only specific block of statements in a series of blocks are called case control statements. There are 4 types of case control statements in C programming. They are 1 switch 2 break 3 continue 4 goto…. The keywords which are used to modify the properties of a variable are called type qualifiers.
There are two types of qualifiers available in C programming. They are 1 const 2 volatile. Constants are also like normal variables…. Storage class specifiers in C programming tell the compiler where to store a variable, how to store the variable, what is the initial value of the variable and the lifetime of the variable.