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3D Printing Seminar Topics,3D Printing ppt, 3D Printing pdf, seminar on 3D Printing, 3D Printing Abstract, 3D Printing seminar report, 3D Printing technology . – First article about 3D printing technology (Hideo Kodama of Nagoya. Municipal Industrial Research Institute). ➢ – First functioning. 3 d printing(ppt) 1. 3D Printing. 2. 3D PRINTER Seminar fair report (pdf) Arjun Raveendran. English. Espanol Portugues Français Deutsche About;. 3D Printing .
Page To reduce this overhead, several fused filament machines now offer multiple extruder heads.
These can be used to print in multiple colours, with different polymers, or to make multiple prints simultaneously.
This increases their overall print speed during multiple instance production, while requiring less capital cost than duplicate machines since they can share a single controlle. It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in or the printing press in , or the transistor in it is impossible to foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing.
But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches. The Economist, in a February 10, leader Additive manufacturing's earliest applications have been on the toolroom end of the manufacturing spectrum. For example, rapid prototyping was one of the earliest additive variants, and its mission was to reduce the lead time and cost of developing prototypes of new parts and devices, which was earlier only done with subtractive toolroom methods typically slowly and expensively.
Distributed manufacturing Main article: Some companies offer on-line 3D printing services to both commercial and private customers, working from 3D designs uploaded to the company website. Rapid manufacturing Advances in RP technology have introduced materials that are appropriate for final manufacture, which has in turn introduced the possibility of directly manufacturing finished components.
One advantage of 3D printing for rapid manufacturing lies in the relatively inexpensive production of small numbers of parts. Rapid manufacturing is a new method of manufacturing and many of its processes remain unproven. As of , however, these techniques were still very much in their infancy, with many obstacles to be overcome before RM could be considered a realistic manufacturing method.
Rapid prototyping Industrial 3D printers have existed since the early s and have been used extensively for rapid prototyping and research purposes. These are generally larger machines that use proprietary powdered metals, casting media e.
In a proof of principle project at the University of Glasgow, UK, showed that it is possible to use 3D printing techniques to assist in the production of chemical compounds. They first printed chemical reaction vessels, then used the printer to deposit reactants into them. A large variety of foods are appropriate candidates, such as chocolate and candy, and flat foods such as crackers, pasta, and pizza. Industrial applications Apparel 3D printing has spread into the world of clothing with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed bikinis, shoes, and dresses.
On demand customization of glasses is possible with rapid prototyping. Automobiles In early , the Swedish supercar manufacturer, Koenigsegg, announced the One: In the limited run of vehicles Koenigsegg produces, the One: An American company, Local Motors is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Cincinnati Incorporated to develop large-scale additive manufacturing processes suitable for printing an entire car body. The company plans to print the vehicle live in front of an audience in September at the International Manufacturing Technology Show.
Created in through the partnership between the US engineering group Kor Ecologic and the company Stratasys manufacturer of printers Stratasys 3D , it is a hybrid vehicle with futuristic look. Construction An additional use being developed is building printing, or using 3D printing to build buildings.
This could allow faster construction for lower costs, and has been investigated for construction of off-Earth habitats. For example, the Sinterhab project is researching a lunar base constructed by 3D printing using lunar regolith as a base material. Instead of adding a binding agent to the regolith, Page Electric motors and generators The magnetic cores of electric machines motors and generators require thin laminations of special preprocessed electrical steel that are insulated from each other to reduce core iron losses.
Preprocessing the raw material is not an extra manufacturing step because all 3D Printing methods require preprocessed material for compatibility with the 3D Printing method, such as preprocessed powdered metal for deposition or fusion 3D printing.
The patented 3D Printer called MotorPrinter was specifically conceived and developed as the only 3D Printer of axial-flux electric machine cores of any category or type, such as induction, permanent magnet, reluctance, and Synchro-Sym, with high performance core materials, such as amorphous metals, all while including the construction of the integral frame and bearing assembly from raw structural steel instead of assembled from an inventory of pre-manufactured precision castings.
MotorPrinter solves the otherwise elusive problems of 3D Printing of electric machines: Firearms In , the US-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to "[design] a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer.
The AR has multiple receivers both an upper and lower receiver , but the legally controlled part is the one that is serialised the lower, in the AR15's case. Soon after Defense Distributed succeeded in designing the first working blueprint to produce a plastic gun with a 3D printer in May , the United States Department of State demanded that they remove the instructions from their website. After Defense Distributed released their plans, questions were raised regarding the effects that 3D printing and widespread consumer-level CNC machining may have on gun control effectiveness.
In , a man from Japan became the first person in the world to be imprisoned for making 3D printed firearms. Yoshitomo Imura posted videos and blueprints of the gun online and was sentenced to jail for two years.
Police found at least two guns in his household that were capable of firing bullets. Medical 3D printing has been used to print patient specific implant and device for medical use.
Successful operations include a titanium pelvis implanted into a British patient, titanium lower jaw transplanted to a Belgian patient, and a plastic tracheal splint for an American infant. In October 24, , a five-year-old girl born without fully formed fingers on her left hand became the first child in the UK to have a prosthetic hand made with 3D printing technology.
Her hand was designed by US-based E-nable, an open source design organisation which uses a network of volunteers to design and make prosthetics mainly for children. The prosthetic hand was based on a plaster cast made by her parents.
Printed prosthetics have been used in rehabilitation of crippled animals. In , a 3D printed foot let a crippled duckling walk again. In a chihuahua born without front legs was fitted with a harness and wheels created with a 3D printer. As of , 3D bio-printing technology has been studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques.
In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems. The first production system for 3D tissue printing was delivered in , based on NovoGen bioprinting technology. Several terms have been used to refer to this field of research: The possibility of using 3D tissue printing to create soft tissue architectures for reconstructive surgery is also being explored.
In , Chinese scientists began printing ears, livers and kidneys, with living tissue. Researchers in China have been able to successfully print human organs using specialised 3D bio printers that use living cells instead of plastic. Researchers at Hangzhou Dianzi University actually went as far as inventing their own 3D printer for the complex task, dubbed the "Regenovo" which is a "3D bio printer.
Xu also predicted that fully functional printed organs may be possible within the next ten to twenty years. In the same year, researchers at the University of Hasselt, in Belgium had successfully printed a new jawbone for an year-old Belgian woman. In January , it was reported that doctors at Londons St Thomas' Hospital had used images obtained from a Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI scan to create a 3D printing replica of the heart of a two-year-old girl with a very complex hole in it.
They were then able to tailor a Gore-Tex patch to effect a cure. The 3D printing meant we could create a model of her heart and then see the inside of it with a replica of the hole as it looked when the heart was pumping. We could go into the operation with a much better idea of what we would find. The 3D printing technique used by the hospital was pioneered by Dr Gerald Greil.
Computers and robots 3D printing can be used to make laptops and other computers, including cases, as Novena and VIA OpenBook standard laptop cases. Applications for space offer the ability to print broken parts or tools on-site, as opposed to using rockets to bring along premanufactured items for space missions to human colonies on the moon, Mars, or elsewhere.
Sociocultural applications An example of 3D printed limited edition jewellery. This necklace is made of glassfiber-filled dyed nylon. It has rotating linkages that were produced in the same manufacturing step as the other parts Guardians of Time by Manfred Kielnhofer, 3D printing polished nickel steel by Shapeways Page Art In , academic journals had begun to report on the possible artistic applications of 3D printing technology.
By the mass media followed with an article in the Wall Street Journal and Time Magazine, listing a 3D printed design among their most influential designs of the year. The installation was called Industrial Revolution 2.
How the Material World will Newly Materialize. Some of the recent developments in 3D printing were revealed at the 3DPrintshow in London, which took place in November and The art section had in exposition artworks made with 3D printed plastic and metal.
One part of the show focused on ways in which 3D printing can advance the medical field. The underlying theme of these advances was that these printers can be used to create parts that are printed with specifications to meet each individual.
This makes the process safer and more efficient. One of these advances is the use of 3D printers to produce casts that are created to mimic the bones that they are supporting.
These custom-fitted casts are open, which allow the wearer to scratch any itches and also wash the damaged area.
Being open also allows for open ventilation. One of the best features is that they can be recycled to create more casts.
The use of 3D scanning technologies allows the replication of real objects without the use of moulding techniques that in many cases can be more expensive, more difficult, or too invasive to be performed, particularly for precious or delicate cultural heritage artefacts where direct contact with the moulding substances could harm the original object's surface.
Critical making refers to the hands on productive activities that link digital technologies to society. It is invented to bridge the gap between creative physical and conceptual exploration.
Ratto describes one of the main goals of critical as "to use material forms of engagement with technologies to supplement and extend critical reflection and, in doing so, to reconnect our lived experiences with technologies to social and conceptual critique".
People usually reference spectacular design when explaining critical making. Communication Employing additive layer technology offered by 3D printing, Terahertz devices which act as waveguides, couplers and bends have been created. The complex Page Commercially available professional grade printer EDEN V was used to create structures with minimum feature size of m. The printed structures were later DC sputter coated with gold or any other metal to create a Terahertz Plasmonic Device. Domestic use As of , domestic 3D printing was mainly practised by hobbyists and enthusiasts, and was little used for practical household applications.
A working clock was made and gears were printed for home woodworking machines among other purposes. Web sites associated with home 3D printing tended to include backscratchers, coathooks, doorknobs etc.
The open source Fab Home project has developed printers for general use. They have been used in research environments to produce chemical compounds with 3D printing technology, including new ones, initially without immediate application as proof of principle. The printer can print with anything that can be dispensed from a syringe as liquid or paste.
The developers of the chemical application envisage both industrial and domestic use for this technology, including enabling users in remote locations to be able to produce their own medicine or household chemicals. The prospects of 3D printing are growing and as more people have access to this new innovation, new uses in households will emerge.
Education and research 3D printing, and open source RepRap 3D printers in particular, are the latest technology making inroads into the classroom. Students design and produce actual models they can hold. The classroom environment allows students to learn and employ new applications for 3D printing. RepRaps, for example, have already been used for an educational mobile robotics platform. The evidence for such claims comes from both the low cost ability for rapid prototyping in the classroom by students, but also the fabrication of low-cost high-quality scientific equipment from open hardware designs forming open-source labs.
Engineering and design principles are explored as well as architectural planning. Students recreate duplicates of museum items such as fossils and historical artifacts for study in the classroom without possibly damaging sensitive collections. Other students interested in graphic designing can construct models with complex working parts. Science students can study cross-sections of internal organs of the human body and other biological Page And chemistry students can explore 3D models of molecules and the relationship within chemical compounds.
Environmental use In Bahrain, large-scale 3D printing using a sandstone-like material has been used to create unique coral-shaped structures, which encourage coral polyps to colonise and regenerate damaged reefs.
These structures have a much more natural shape than other structures used to create artificial reefs, and, unlike concrete, are neither acid nor alkaline with neutral pH.
Consider printing larger objects like house using 3D printer. There will not be any X motor or Y motor in that case. An extruder which can pour concrete mix is fixed on the tip of a crane.
The crane is programmed for the movement of extruder in X, Y and Z axis. The concept and structure of 3d printer changes according to the type, size, accuracy and material of the object that has to be printed.
Generalizing the facts, the extruder need to access all the 3 coordinates in space to print and object. Additive manufacturing uses three dimensional printing to transform engineering design files into fully functional and durable objects created from sand, metal and glass. It enables geometries not previously possible to be manufactured. Full-form parts are made directly from computer-aided design CAD data for a variety of industrial, commercial and art applications. Manufacturers across several industries are using this digital manufacturing process to produce a range of products, including: This advanced manufacturing process starts with a CAD file that conveys information about how the finished product is supposed to look.
The CAD file is then sent to a specialized printer where the product is created by the repeated laying of finely powdered material including sand, metal and glass and binder to gradually build the finished product.
Since it works in a similar fashion to an office printer laying ink on paper, this process is often referred to as 3D printing. The 3D printers can create a vast range of products, including parts for use in airplanes and automobiles, to replacing aging or broken industrial equipment, or for precise components for medical needs.
There are tremendous cost advantages to using additive manufacturing. There is little to no waste creating objects through additive manufacturing, as they are precisely built by adding material layer by layer. In traditional manufacturing, objects are created in a subtractive manner as metals are trimmed and shaped to fit together properly. This process creates substantial waste that can be harmful to the environment.
Additive manufacturing is a very energy efficient and environmentally friendly manufacturing option. Additive manufacturing swiftly creates product prototypes — an increasingly critical function that significantly reduces the traditional trial-and-error process — so new products can enter the market more quickly.
Likewise, it can promptly create unique or specialized metal products that can replace worn or broken industrial parts. That means companies can avoid costly shut downs and drastically compress the time it takes to machine a replacement part. Storage of bulky patterns and tooling is virtually eliminated. Major global companies, including Ford, Sikorsky and Caterpillar, have recognized that additive manufacturing can significantly reduce costs while offering design freedoms not previously possible.
They have begun to implement the technology into their manufacturing processes.
Additive manufacturing has robust market capabilities ranging from aerospace to automotive to energy, and it is not uncommon to find 3D printers in use at metal-working factories and in foundries alongside milling machines, presses and plastic injection moulding equipment.
Companies that use additive manufacturing reduce costs, lower the risk of trial and error, and create opportunities for design innovation. A serious limitation of subtractive manufacturing is that part designs are often severely comprised to accommodate the constraints of the subtractive process. Additive manufacturing enables both the design Fig. A large number of additive processes are now available.
They differ in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that can be used. Some methods melt or soften material to produce the layers, e. With laminated object manufacturing LOM , thin layers are cut to shape and joined together e.
Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, and some companies consequently offer a choice between powder and polymer for the material from which the object is built.
Some companies use standard, off- the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype. In this process, a plastic or wax material is extruded through a nozzle that traces the part's cross sectional geometry layer by layer.
The build material is usually supplied in filament form, but some setups utilize plastic pellets fed from a hopper instead. The nozzle contains resistive heaters that keep the plastic at a temperature just above its melting point so that it flows easily through the nozzle and forms the layer. The plastic hardens immediately after flowing from the nozzle and bonds to the layer below. Once a layer is built, the platform lowers, and the extrusion nozzle deposits another layer.
The layer thickness and vertical dimensional accuracy is determined by the extruder die diameter, which ranges from 0. In the X-Y plane, 0. A range of materials are available including ABS, polyamide, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, and investment casting wax. The technique fuses parts of the layer, and then moves the working area downwards, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up.
This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the part being produced, which reduces the need for temporary auxiliary supports for the piece. A laser is typically used to sinter the media into a solid. Examples include selective laser sintering SLS , with both metals and polymers e.
Selective Laser Melting SLM does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layer wise method with similar mechanical properties to conventional manufactured metals.
Electron EBM is a similar type of additive manufacturing technology for metal parts e. EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum. Unlike metal sintering techniques that operate below melting point, EBM parts are fully dense, void-free, and very strong. Another method consists of an inkjet 3D printing system. The printer creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder plaster, or resins and printing a binder in the cross-section of the part using an inkjet-like process.
The strength of bonded powder prints can be enhanced with wax or thermoset polymer impregnation. Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography SLA to produce a solid part from a liquid. In photopolymerisation, a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to control lighting under safelight conditions. The exposed liquid polymer hardens.
The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again exposed to light. The process repeats until the model has been built. The liquid polymer is then drained from the vat, leaving the solid model.
Each photopolymer layer is cured with UV light after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing. The gel-like support material, which is designed to support complicated geometries, is removed by hand and water jetting.
It is also suitable for elastomers. Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D micro fabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerisation. This approach traces the desired 3D object in a block of gel using a focused laser. Due to the nonlinear nature of photo excitation, the gel is cured to a solid only in the places where the laser was focused and the remaining gel is then washed away.
Feature sizes of under nm are easily produced, as well as complex structures with moving and interlocked parts. The printer then slices an outline of the object into that cross section to be removed from the surrounding excess material later. Repeating this process builds up the object one layer at a time. Objects printed using LOM are accurate, strong, and durable and generally show no distortion over time which makes them suitable for all stages of the design cycle. They can even be additionally modified by machining or drilling after printing.
Typical layer resolution for this process is defined by the material feedstock and usually ranges in thickness from one to a few sheets of copy paper. First you must create a computer model for printing the object. After the object file is created, the file need to be modified.
The object file contains numerous amount of curves. Curves cannot be printed by the printer directly. The curves has to be converted to STL Stereo lithography file format. The STL file format conversion removes all the curves and it is replaced with linear shapes. Then the file need to be sliced into layer by layer. The layer thickness is so chosen to meet the resolution of the 3D printer we are using.
If you are unable to draw objects in CAD software, there are many websites available which are hosted by the 3D printing companies to ease the creation of 3D object. The sliced file is processed and generates the special coordinates. These coordinates can be processed by a controller to generate required signal to the motor for driving extruder. This layer by layer process generate a complete object. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.
CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects.
However, it involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application- specific conventions. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional 2D space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional 3D space.
CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals, often called DCC digital content creation. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the s.
Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics both hardware and software , and discrete differential geometry. The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is occasionally called computer-aided geometric design CAGD.
Unexpected capabilities of these associative relationships have led to a new form of prototyping called digital prototyping. In contrast to physical prototypes, which entail manufacturing time in the design. That said, CAD models can be generated by a computer after the physical prototype has been scanned using an industrial CT scanning machine. Depending on the nature of the business, digital or physical prototypes can be initially chosen according to specific needs. The surface is tessellated logically into a set of oriented triangles facets.
Each facet is described by the unit outward normal and three points listed in counterclockwise order representing the vertices of the triangle.
While the aspect ratio and orientation of individual facets is governed by the surface curvature, the size of the facets is driven by the tolerance controlling the quality of the surface representation in terms of the distance of the facets from the surface. The choice of the tolerance is strongly dependent on the target application of the produced STL file.
In industrial processing, where stereolithography machines perform a computer controlled layer by layer laser curing of a photo-sensitive resin, the tolerance may be in order of 0. However much larger values are typically used in pre-production STL prototypes, for example for visualization purposes. The native STL format has to fulfill the following specifications: First, the direction of the normal is outward.
Second, the vertices are listed in counterclockwise order when looking at the object from the outside right-hand rule. This is known as vertex-to-vertex rule. Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts. These techniques are able to print in multiple colors and color combinations simultaneously, and would not necessarily require painting.
Some printing techniques require internal supports to be built for overhanging features during construction. These supports must be mechanically removed or dissolved upon completion of the print. All of the commercialized metal 3-D printers involve cutting the metal component off of the metal substrate after deposition.
A new process for the GMAW 3-D printing allows for substrate surface modifications to remove aluminum components manually with a hammer. This method uses a high powered laser to melt powder together. When set up carefully, this can create an almost perfectly uniform material of nearly injection mold quality.
This make for very durable products. This is very interesting for musical instruments, as this allows us to create objects with the same materials as conventional instruments, but with the ease of printing instead of manual labor. The method is relatively simple, due to inherent supports it avoids additional step in between the 3d model and printing. The surface quality is fair, but not as detailed as other techniques.