Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics. byHastings, James, ; Selbie, John Alexander, ; Gray, Louis H. (Louis Herbert). Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics covers many fields, and presents the latest Perhaps this note will bring forward a pdf. File:Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Volume mtn-i.info From Wikimedia Commons Size of this JPG preview of this PDF file: × pixels.
|Language:||English, Spanish, French|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
it to the world. ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR, P.C., F.R.S., O.M.. I have carefully examined every volume of the. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics as it has. Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics by James Hastings, , Charles Scribner's Sons edition, in English. Articles on all the religions of the world and the great systems of ethics; on every religious belief or custom and ethical movement; on every philosophical.
Jesus sums up the commandments under two, the command to love God with all one's heart and soul and mind see Deuteronomy , and the command to love the neighbor as the self see Leviticus The New Testament is unlike the Hebrew Bible, however, in presenting a narrative about a man who is the perfect exemplification of obedience and who has a life without sin.
New Testament scholars disagree about the extent to which Jesus actually claimed to be God, but the traditional interpretation is that he did make this claim; in any case the Christian doctrine is that we can see in his life the clearest possible revelation in human terms both of what God is like and at the same time of what our lives ought to be like. Jesus tells us to love our enemies and those who hate and persecute us, and in this way he makes it clear that the love commandment is not based on reciprocity Matt —48; Luke — The theme of self-sacrifice is clearest in the part of the narrative that deals with Jesus' death.
This event is understood in many different ways in the New Testament, but one central theme is that Jesus died on our behalf, an innocent man on behalf of the guilty. Jesus describes the paradigm of loving our neighbors as the willingness to die for them.
This theme is connected with our relationship to God, which we violate by disobedience, but which is restored by God's forgiveness through redemption. In Paul's letters especially we are given a three-fold temporal location for the relation of morality to God's work on our behalf. We are forgiven for our past failures on the basis of Jesus' sacrifice Rom.
We are reconciled now with God through God's adoption of us in Christ Rom. And we are given the hope of future progress in holiness by the work of the Holy Spirit Rom.
All of this theology requires more detailed analysis, but this is not the place for it. There is a contrast between the two traditions I have so far described, namely the Greek and the Judeo-Christian. The idea of God that is central in Greek philosophy is the idea of God attracting us, like a kind of magnet, so that we desire to become more like God, though there is a minority account by Socrates of receiving divine commands. In the Jewish and Christian scriptures, the notion of God commanding us is central.
It is tempting to simplify this contrast by saying that the Greeks favor the good, in their account of the relation of morality and religion, and the Judeo-Christian account favors the right or obligation. It is true that the notion of obligation makes most sense against the background of command. But the picture is over-simple because the Greeks had room in their account for the constraint of desire; thus the temperate or brave person in Aristotle's picture has desires for food or sex or safety that have to be disciplined by the love of the noble.
On the other side, the Judeo-Christian account adds God's love to the notion of God's command, so that the covenant in which the commands are embedded is a covenant by which God blesses us, and we are given a route towards our highest good which is union with God. The Middle Ages The rest of the history to be described in this entry is a cross-fertilization of these two traditions or lines of thought. In the patristic period, or the period of the early Fathers, it was predominantly Plato and the Stoics amongst the Greek philosophers whose influence was felt.
The Eastern and Western parts of the Christian church split during the period, and the Eastern church remained more comfortable than the Western with language about humans being deified in Greek theosis. In the Western church, Augustine — emphasized the gap between the world we are in as resident aliens and our citizenship in the heavenly Jerusalem, and even in our next life the distance between ourselves and God.
He describes in the Confessions the route by which his heart or will, together with his understanding, moved from paganism through Neo-Platonism to Christianity.
Augustine accepted that the Platonists taught, like the beginning of the prologue of John, that the Word in Greek, logos is with God and is God, since the Intellect is the mediating principle between the One and the Many John —5. Dei VIII. But the Platonists did not teach, like the end of John's prologue, that the Word is made flesh in Jesus Christ, and so they did not have access to the way to salvation revealed in Christ or God's grace to us through Christ's death.
Nonetheless, it is surprising how far Augustine can go in rapprochement. The Forms, he says, are in the mind of God and God uses them in the creation of the world. Human beings were created for union with God, but they have the freedom to turn towards themselves instead of God.
If they turn to God, they can receive divine illumination through a personal intuition of the eternal standards the Forms. If they turn towards themselves, they will lose the sense of the order of creation, which the order of their own loves should reflect.
Augustine gives primacy to the virtue of loving what ought to be loved, especially God. He held that humans who truly love God will also act in accord with the other precepts of divine and moral law; though love not merely fulfills the cardinal virtues wisdom, justice, courage and temperance but transforms them by supernatural grace. The influence of Augustine in the subsequent history of ethics resulted from the fact that it was his synthesis of Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire after and Greek philosophy that survived the destruction of the Western Roman Empire, especially in the monasteries where the texts were still read.
Boethius c. To understand this, we need to go back into the history of the development of the doctrine of the Trinity. The church had to explain how the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit could be distinct and yet not three different gods.
The doctrine of the Trinity comes to be understood in terms of three persons, one God, with the persons standing in different relations to each other. The church came to talk about one person with two natures, the person standing under the natures. This had the merit of not making either the humanity or the divinity less essential to who Jesus was. In the West knowledge of most of Aristotle's texts was lost, but not in the East. They were translated into Syriac, and Arabic, and eventually in Muslim Spain into Latin, and re-entered Christian Europe in the twelfth century accompanied by translations of the great Arabic commentaries.
In the initial prophetic period of Islam CE —32 the Qur'an was given to Mohammad, who explained it and reinforced it through his own teachings and practices. The notion of God's Allah's commands is again central, and our obedience to these commands is the basis of our eventual resurrection.
Disputes about political authority in the period after Mohammad's death led to the split between Sunnis and Shiites. Within Sunni Muslim ethical theory in the Middle Ages two major alternative ways developed of thinking about the relation between morality and religion. These standards that we learn from reason apply also to God, so that we can use them to judge what God is and is not commanding us to do. He also teaches that humans have freedom, in the sense of a power to perform both an act and its opposite, though not at the same time.
The second alternative was taught by al-Ashari d. He insists that God is subject to none and to no standard that can fix bounds for Him. Nothing can be wrong for God, who sets the standard of right and wrong.
With respect to our freedom, he holds that God gives us only the power to do the act not its opposite and this power is simultaneous to the act and does not precede it.
A figure contemporary with al-Ashari, but in some ways intermediate between Mu'tazilites and Asharites, is al-Maturidi of Samarqand d. He holds that because humans have the tendency in their nature towards ugly or harmful actions as well as beautiful or beneficial ones, God has to reveal to us by command what to pursue and what to avoid.
He also teaches that God gives us two different kinds of power, both the power simultaneous with the act which is simply to do the act and the power preceding the act to choose either the act or its opposite. Medieval reflection within Judaism about morality and religion has, as its most significant figure, Maimonides d. The Guide of the Perplexed was written for young men who had read Aristotle and were worried about the tension between the views of the philosopher and their faith.
Maimonides teaches that we do indeed have some access just as human beings to the rightness and wrongness of acts; but what renders conforming to these standards obligatory is that God reveals them in special revelation. The laws are obligatory whether we understand the reasons for them or not, but sometimes we do see how it is beneficial to obey, and Maimonides is remarkably fertile in providing such reasons. II, d. Thomas Aquinas c. Aquinas, like Aristotle, emphasized the ends vegetative, animal and typically human given to humans in the natural order.
He described both the cardinal virtues and the theological virtues of faith, hope and love, but he did not feel the tension that current virtue ethicists sometimes feel between virtue and the following of rules or principles.
The rules governing how we ought to live are known, some of them by revelation, some of them by ordinary natural experience and rational reflection. But Aquinas thought these rules consistent in the determination of our good, since God only requires us to do what is consistent with our own good. And from this natural willing are caused all other willings, since whatever a man wills, he wills on account of the end. The principles of natural moral law are the universal judgments made by right reasoning about the kinds of actions that are morally appropriate and inappropriate for human agents.
They are thus, at least in principle and at a highly general level, deducible from human nature. Aquinas held that reason, in knowing these principles, is participating in the eternal law, which is in the mind of God Summa Theologiae I, q.
Aquinas was not initially successful in persuading the church to embrace Aristotle. Aquinas was a Dominican friar. The other major order of friars, the Franciscan, had its own school of philosophy, starting with Bonaventure c. First, Scotus is not a eudaimonist. He takes a double account of motivation from Anselm — , who made the distinction between two affections of the will, the affection for advantage an inclination towards one's own happiness and perfection and the affection for justice an inclination towards what is good in itself independent of advantage Anselm, De Concordia 3.
Original sin is a ranking of advantage over justice, which needs to be reversed by God's assistance before we can be pleasing to God. Scotus says that we should be willing to sacrifice our own happiness for God if God were to require this. Second, he does not think that the moral law is self-evident or necessary. But the second table is contingent, though fitting our nature, and God could prescribe different commands even for human beings Ord.
I, dist. One of his examples is the proscription on theft, which applies only to beings with property, and so not necessarily to human beings since they are not necessarily propertied.
Third, Scotus denied the application of teleology to non-intentional nature, and thus departed from the Aristotelian and Thomist view. This does not mean that we have no natural end or telos, but that this end is related to the intention of God in the same way a human artisan intends his or her products to have a certain purpose see Hare , chapter 2.
Modern Philosophy Europe experienced a second Renaissance when scholars fled Constantinople after its capture by the Muslims in , and brought with them Greek manuscripts that were previously inaccessible.
In Florence Marsilio Ficino —99 identified Plato as the primary ancient teacher of wisdom, and like Bonaventure cited Augustine as his guide in elevating Plato in this way.
His choice of Plato was determined by the harmony he believed to exist between Plato's thought and the Christian faith, and he set about making Latin translations of all the Platonic texts so that this wisdom could be available for his contemporaries who did not know Greek. He was also the first Latin translator of Plotinus, the Neo-Platonist. Many of the central figures in the Reformation were humanists in the Renaissance sense where there is no implication of atheism. The historical connection between Scotus and the Reformers can be traced through William of Ockham d.
The Counter-Reformation in Roman Catholic Europe, on the other hand, took the work of Aquinas as authoritative for education. However, Suarez accepted Scotus's double account of motivation. The next two centuries in European philosophy can be described in terms of two lines of development, rationalism and empiricism, both of which led, in different ways, to the possibility of a greater detachment of ethics from theology.
Descartes was not primarily an ethicist, but he located the source of moral law surprisingly for a rationalist in God's will.
The most important rationalist in ethics was Benedict de Spinoza — He was a Jew, but was condemned by his contemporary faith community as unorthodox. Like Descartes, he attempted to duplicate the methods of geometry in philosophy.
Substance, according to Spinoza, exists in itself and is conceived through itself Ethics, I, def. Everything in the universe is necessary, and there is no free will, except in as far as Spinoza is in favor of calling someone free who is led by reason Ethics, I, prop.
Each human mind is a limited aspect of the divine intellect. On this view which has its antecedent in Stoicism the human task is to move towards the greatest possible rational control of human life. Leibniz was, like Descartes, not primarily an ethicist. The rationalists were not denying the centrality of God in human moral life, but their emphasis was on the access we have through the light of reason rather than through sacred text or ecclesiastical authority.
After Leibniz there was in Germany a long-running battle between the rationalists and the pietists, who tried to remain true to the goals of the Lutheran Reformation. Examples of the two schools are Christian Wolff — and Christian August Crusius —75 , and we can understand Immanuel Kant — , like his teacher Martin Knutzen —51 , as trying to mediate between the two.
Wolff was a very successful popularizer of the thought of Leibniz, but fuller in his ethical system. He took from Leibniz the principle that we will always select what pleases us most, and the principle that pleasure is the apprehension of perfection, so that the amount of pleasure we feel is proportional to the amount of perfection we intuit New Essays on Human Understanding, XXI, He thought we are obligated to do what will make us and our condition, or that of others, more perfect, and this is the law of nature that would be binding on us even if per impossible God did not exist.
He saw no problem about the connection between virtue and happiness, since both of them result directly from our perfection, and no problem about the connection between virtue and duty, since a duty is simply an act in accordance with law, which prescribes the pursuit of perfection.
His views were offensive to the pietists, because he claimed that Confucius already knew by reason all that mattered about morality, even though he did not know anything about Christ. Crusius by contrast accepted Scotus's double theory of motivation, and held that there are actions that we ought to do regardless of any ends we have, even the end of our own perfection and happiness.
It is plausible to see here the origin of Kant's categorical imperative. His idea was that we have within us this separate capacity to recognize divine command and to be drawn towards it out of a sense of dependence on the God who prescribes the command to us, and will punish us if we disobey though our motive should not be to avoid punishment Ibid. The history of empiricism in Britain from Hobbes to Hume is also the history of the attempt to re-establish human knowledge, but not from above from indubitable principles of reason but from below from experience and especially the experience of the senses.
Thomas Hobbes — said that all reality is bodily including God , and all events are motions in space. Willing, then, is a motion, and is merely the last act of desire or aversion in any process of deliberation.
His view is that it is natural, and so reasonable, for each of us to aim solely at our own preservation or pleasure. The second precept is that each of us should be willing to lay down our natural rights to everything to the extent that others are also willing, and Hobbes concludes with the need to subordinate ourselves to a sovereign who alone will be able to secure peace. He argues for the authority in the interpretation of Scripture to be given to that same earthly sovereign, and not to competing ecclesiastical authorities whose competition had been seen to exacerbate the miseries of war both in Britain and on the continent Ibid.
John Locke — followed Hobbes in deriving morality from our need to live together in peace given our natural discord, but he denied that we are mechanically moved by our desires. He agreed with Hobbes in saying that moral laws are God's imposition, but disagreed by making God's power and benevolence both necessary conditions for God's authority in this respect Treatises, IV.
He also held that our reason can work out counsels or advice about moral matters; but only God's imposition makes law and hence obligation , and we only know about God's imposition from revelation The Reasonableness of Christianity, 62—5.
He therefore devoted considerable attention to justifying our belief in the reliability of revelation. The deists e. Frances Hutcheson — was not a deist, but does give a reading of the sort of guidance involved here. He distinguished between objects that are naturally good, which excite personal or selfish pleasure, and those that are morally good, which are advantageous to all persons affected. He took himself to be giving a reading of moral goodness as agape, the Greek word for the love of our neighbor that Jesus prescribes.
Because these definitions of natural and moral good produce a possible gap between the two, we need some way to believe that morality and happiness are coincident.
This moral sense responds to examples of benevolence with approbation and a unique kind of pleasure, and benevolence is the only thing it responds to, as it were the only signal it picks up. It is, like Scotus's affection for justice, not confined to our perception of advantage.
Parents started reminding their children to eat their food with consideration for the starving children in China. The Tartars, who had fled World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in , gathered enough people and resources to help establish in the first building in New York City that was solely dedicated as a mosque, called the American Mohammedan Society located in Brooklyn.
There was a brief respite to anti-Asian legislation when congress voted to allow Asian Americans who fought in World War I to receive citizenship. Consequently, Bhagat Singh Thind, now a religious teacher, was finally granted the citizenship that he was denied in Because immigration of Asian Americans had basically stopped, the second generation was becoming the largest group in their religious congregations.
For example, in , the second generation became a majority 52 percent of Chinese Americans. Consequently, Asian American religious organizations were adding family and children ministries. In an obtuse misreading of Japanese Americans as potential enemies, the United States government swiftly acted to quarantine Japanese Americans.
On February 19, , President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order , sending over , people of Japanese birth or ancestry on the West Coast to internment camps. Japanese families had to store their personal belongings and often did so at churches and temples.
For example, in Los Angeles, six hundred families stored their household goods in the Buddhist Nicheren Temple, which was later looted. A Japanese Quaker, Gordon Hirabayashi, challenged the presidential order by refusing to evacuate. Eventually, he was given a thirty-day sentence to a camp in Arizona and went back home afterward. Japanese American Christian churches raised most of the money needed to resettle Japanese American students outside of the camps so that they could continue their college education.
There was tension between some Christians and Buddhists in the camps. The war forced the United States government to rethink its anti-Asian discrimination.
One concern was that China was now an ally.
So, in , the government repealed the Chinese exclusion that had been in effect. Asian and White Americans volunteered to fly in defense of China through groups like the Flying Tigers. The agitation of the young Nisei forced the government to admit them into United States combat units. Fighting in Europe, the men won 18, decorations for bravery, becoming the most highly decorated military unit in United States history.
Many 46 percent said that they were not religious, 35 percent Protestant, 5 percent Catholic, 13 percent Buddhist, and 1 percent Mormon. In the postwar period, immigration from Asia restarted in a small way. Adjustments were made by Japanese American Buddhists to become more fully identified as American Buddhism. The United States also promoted independence for India and Pakistan. In , the partition and independence of the two countries led to turmoil and immigration of Muslims to the United States.
In the same year, the Federation of Islamic Organizations, which included some Asian Americans, was founded. Religiously, one result was a wave of religious organizing by refugees from Asia. At the same time that the United Nations was setting up in New York City, a Chinese American church was being founded to accommodate Chinese Christian immigrants and workers at the international agency.
By there were over sixty Chinese churches in the United States. The arrival of refugees from the wars in Southeast Asia meant the arrival of new kinds of Buddhism, folk religion, and Christianity. Young educated Chinese fleeing the turmoil in China joined second-generation Chinese Americans to establish numerous college and university fellowships in the s.
Newly arrived Chinese Buddhists also made their presence known. They were generally more educated than the followers of folk Buddhism and preferred a more orthodox, intellectual form of Buddhism; modern, textually knowledgeable clergy; and lay leadership. At first the young lay Buddhists started informal groups to chant, meditate, and study texts. Soon they found nonprofits to sponsor the immigration of monks and nuns.
The first nonprofit was the Chinese Buddhist Association of Hawaii, founded in This phenomenon grew in importance.
The s and s were a tumultuous period that included the impact of worldwide events and a change of immigration laws that would lead to unprecedented levels of religious change and Asian immigration in future decades. Various spiritual teachers from India also made an impact. Second, the lay Buddhist associations that were founded in the s were able to gather enough resources to establish temples. In another group also established the Buddhist Association of the United States.
It took about five to ten years before the flow of immigrants became a gusher. At the same time, unnoticed by most, there was a conservative Muslim revival occurring throughout the Muslim world, sparked by the Pakistani teacher Maulana Mandudi and the Egyptian Sayyid Qutb. Very quickly, their teachings found hospitable soil among some young Asian Americans. The and , Arab—Israeli wars increased anger within the Muslim world.
Partly in order to contain the dangers of radicalization, the Muslim establishment in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and elsewhere started investing in the building of mosques in the United States.
This often resulted in the spread of a conservative form of Islam. American Muslim university students who were influenced by the theologically conservative trends formed the Muslim Student Association in , and in , the Muslim Community Center of Chicago. The mosque had a mainly South Asian congregation. Also, in the s, a momentous revival of Korean Buddhism was taking place in the mountain monasteries. As Korean emigration to the United States increased, monks from this revival also came.
Christianity was growing even faster in Korea and establishing denominations and seminaries that would soon send thousands of trained religious workers to the United States. In China the Culture Revolution, which started in , closed all churches and banned all religions until after The unanticipated result was disillusionment with the Communist Party and a growing demand for an ideology or religion that would give meaning, order, peace, and freedom to Chinese.
To the surprise of many, this resulted in an explosive growth of Christianity that eventually sent believers and teachers to the United States. Chinese American Christianity grew quickly. Churches founded in the s saw significant growth in the s and s. Its nine-story building in Chinatown housed the largest Chinese American congregation on the East Coast. Many Chinese American Buddhists were still meeting in home devotional groups, but they also started expanding their institutional infrastructure.
The Buddhist teacher started four more temples between and The next year, the Eastern States Buddhist Association started the Mahayana Temple and sponsored the immigration of dozens of nuns and monks in the following years. They were fervent; they established Christian schools, hospitals, and other organizations, and they were identified with modernization. The Korean immigrants to the United States were young urbanites who were the most likely to be Christian in South Korea.
The revival of Korean Buddhism came to the United States through the activities of monks and laypeople. Several catastrophic events affected Asian American religions in the s. The civil war leading to the formation of Bangladesh in spurred an influx of Pakistani and Bangladeshi Muslims, and consequently the establishment of mosques.
About 14 percent of the , Russian Jews who immigrated to the United States were Central Asian Jews who held with worship services with Asian characteristics. Then in , the Communist Khmer Rouge seized control of Cambodia. The movement executed up to one-third of the population and particularly targeted the religious clergy.
The victors almost annihilated the population of the traditional Khmer Buddhist monks and killed every Christian pastor whom they could identify. They destroyed temples and turned several Buddhist monasteries into torture centers. About , Cambodians made their way to the United States accompanied by a few surviving Buddhist monks. This disaster was only the opening scene to a vast influx of Southeast Asians as the Vietnam War came to a close.
Buddhist and Christian Southeast Asians established many religious centers scattered around the country. Refugee resettlement agencies landed several thousand Southeast Asians in Louisiana. In the U. Asian American Buddhists initiated several important ventures. Thai Buddhists founded several wats temples in California and New York. This form of Buddhism includes more emphasis on social services, moral reformation, and theological purity than some other Buddhisms.
The United States government granted 52, Chinese permanent residence. Sociologist Fenggang Yang, himself from a university in Beijing, concluded that Christianity had become a template for sticking together Chinese, American, and Christian identities. He also promoted the consolidation of a Tibetan American community.
At his Madison Square Garden gathering in , he performed rituals to initiate his followers onto the path of pure Buddhahood.