Tipiṭaka in PDF. Roman script texts: Zip Files, Size (MB). Tipitaka (Mūla). Vinayapiṭaka. Suttapiṭaka. Abhidhammapiṭaka. Aṭṭhakathā. The Tripiṭaka or Tipiṭaka is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures. The version .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Sutra fragment, section of mtn-i.info 5, × 4,; MB. The Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka WDLpdf × 1,, 14 pages; MB.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
penodaan agama (pasal Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana. (KUHP) Austria) bahwa kitab Wedha, Tripitaka, Tao dan Kong Fu Tse berasal dari Ib-. Pengantar Menelusuri Kerangka Penyusunan dan Isi Kitab Suci Tipitaka/ Tripitaka . Or. Id - Tipitaka Sutta Pitaka Majjhima mtn-i.info 35 Cula. his years in Sri. Lanka, where he learnt Pali and studied the Tripitaka, earning himself the Merī Jīvan Yātrā, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal. Dharmaratna.
Taisho Tripitaka The translation of Buddhist sutras and other texts from Sanskrit into Chinese had occurred over years, from the later Han Dynasty 2nd century to the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty 13th century. Afterwards, there were several Masters, such as Kumarajiva , that came from Kashmir and India.
Chinese monks, including most notably the famous Hsuan-Tsang , traveled to India and brought back several sutras, thereby enriching the Chinese Tripitaka and making it the most complete Tripitaka that was ever translated. From later Han to the Liang Dynasty there were sutras that were translated during those years. During the reign of the first Song Emperor , various sutras and sacred texts were, for the very first time, assembled into a Tripitaka.
This Tripitaka occurred in Sichuan and, therefore, it was known as the Sichuan Tripitaka. It took 12 years to complete and it included fascicles.
Following the Sichuan Tripitaka, there were several others that were created, including those in with fascicles, in , in , in and in in Beijing. The Korean Tripitaka was developed from to During the Meiji reign , the Japanese Tripitaka was completed with fascicles. Various versions of the Chinese Tripitaka were printed but still incomplete, with some sutras missing or damaged with time.
These can cause serious difficulties to Buddhist scholars. Two noted scholars from Tokyo University, Takakusu Junjiroo and Watanabe Kaikyoku , had vowed to develop a complete Tripitaka. For eight years , they had collected, researched, investigated, compared, and organized in a systematic manner all the available sutras into a complete Tripitaka that was composed of 85 volumes containing fascicles and sutras.
This Tripitaka was first printed in during the Taisho reign, and it was widely known as the Taisho Tripitaka. Among the 85 volumes, sutras and other texts such as vinayas precepts and sastras commentaries are in the first 55 volumes.
The secular sutras and texts are contained in volume 56 through volume The sutras fascicles are divided into two categories. Category B includes the commentaries and literary works of Chinese and Japanese Masters. Included in Category B are sutras divided into fascicles.
The Taisho Tripitaka contains more fascicles than the Sanskrit and Pali Tripitakas, because there are multiple translations of well-known sutras. According to Prof. Christian Wittern of Kyoto University, several research programs have focused in applying these modern technologies to the development of an electronic Tripitaka.
In the U. Lewis Lancaster from UC Berkeley is considered to be to the pioneer in this field. In February , Rev. Since the Tripitaka has more than sutras and over 70 million Chinese words, we have spent considerable efforts in researching various computer-based techniques for translating them.
An advantage of computer translation is the translation may have errors but it is always complete, because the computer translates word by word. This dictionary has been widely used over the last several decades. Being culturally loaded, English words and their Chinese translations or vice versa are seldom equivalents, and often give rise to different associations or images. Jiang, , p.
Across languages and societies, seemingly functionally equivalent words may depict variant versions of reality. This will be less true of simple, universal objects stone, leaf, knife and more true of abstract ideas and social constructs family, teenager, democracy. Each variant has its own characteristic allusions, flavor, and appropriate range and context of usage.
Rooted in a certain cultural soil, words do not always travel well. Cohen, , p. Khalifa n. Therefore, the need arise for explaining these words. False Accusations Arab Muslim scholars have a positive admiring attitude towards this genre i.
They provide a list of the words belonging to this class and clarify their meanings. Non-Arabs and Non-Muslims have a different attitude. They failed to appreciate it, and, consequently, criticize it severely.
They even go to the extent of saying that this practice of using obscure or strange words is similar to black magic in which tricks are performed by saying some very strange words that do not make any sense even to the black magicians who compose them, and that Mohammed PBUH used these 'abracadabra-like' 91 www. The use of strange words does not stop at using random letters; the Quran did actually incorporate strange or foreign words in a similar fashion to the practice of the black magicians.
If we refer to the interpretations books to find the meanings for words like ababil Mohammed probably used them just to make an impression. The Arab black magicians are known to use foreign or distorted words or even coin new ones that have no meaning at all other than making an impression in the minds of their stupid audience Salih, It does not have the textual depth that the Bible or the Tripitaka or the Gita have.
And as Peters have said: And this is a book that claims to be kitab mubeen clear and self explaining book and written in 'Arabi Faseeh or pure Arabic. For as Muslims realized early on, there were a number of words in their sacred text that were not part of ordinary Arabic discourse, some of them deriving from rare Arabic or Semitic roots, some of them traceable to even more exotic languages, such as Persian.
Burman, , p. He adds: One time, some words could be so common or even vulgar.
Other times, they could be so limitedly used, or confined to a specific class of people or to a certain environment. The result is that these words become so rare that their meanings are hardly recognized by language users, and turn into strange words.
A strange word here refers to fine words whose interpretation is dubious in a way that language users do not have equal knowledge of its meaning. Accordingly, strangeness of its words does not mean that these words are not eloquent or are out of context.
A strange word here refers to fine words whose interpretation is dubious in a way that it is not equally known to its users and others. Xaqzug also emphasizes that though some of these words e. Besides, taking over words from other languages which is referred to as 'borrowing' is a widespread process amongst the world languages, and borrowed words are not considered obscure in the recipient 93 www.
A question that was raised in this respect was: They meant that words described as so are only relatively obscure in the sense that they are 1 unfamiliar to the non-Arabs who accepted Islam but were not fully acquainted with the Arabic language and continued to use their own native languages, 2 unfamiliar to later generations whether from the Arabs or the non-Arabs whose competence of classical Arabic is weak compared to that of earlier generations.
Thus, obscurity here is not something inherent in the words themselves. This competence is weakened by remoteness from language either because of its being the mother tongue or temporal remoteness from the native language. Indeed, the analogy is just barely sufficient since the work of man cannot be compared to the Word of God. Nevertheless, out of fairness the same principle should be applied here. Anyone interested in reading English literature knows to what extent Englishmen admire the Shakespearean drama and speak about it with excessive pride.
Yet, apart from the fact that non-native speakers might have a difficulty grasping the meaning of some Shakespearean words and expressions, their own writers admit that Shakespeare used many obscure words. For example, Charles 94 www. Mackay contributes obscurities in the works of Shakespeare and his contemporaries to various reasons including errors of the press, and free use of the vernacular and unliterary speech of the people at that time.
When it comes to Shakespeare, using obscure words is considered a part of his literary genius which beautifies his work and imports superiority to it.
Conclusion Obscurity in the sense identified by Arab Muslim scholars is not something inherent in the vocabulary itself. On the contrary, it imparts to it beauty and eloquence.
It also imparts to it variation: This transition from the common to the obscure is a transition from the ordinary to the extraordinary or the magnificent at the same time- something which can rarely be found in any genre. It is something too magnificent and extraordinary for them to be able to conceive of. The lack of understanding is due to differences in culture. Acknowledgements Thanks are due to everyone who contributed directly or indirectly to this research.
I would also like to thank my husband, Ashraf Hassan, for his cooperation, understanding, and 95 www.
Thanks are also due to my mother for her great support. I am also so grateful to my colleague Dr. Ghada Abdu Taha- a lecturer at Al-Azhar university who did the proofreading of this work.
References Al- Suyoutiyy, G. Al-Hassan, B. Mouta llbHoth wao aldrasat, 18 8 , Retrieved from http: Cultural familiarity in inferential and literal comprehension in L2 reading. System, 34, — Al-Qadhi, A. Al-Sakkaki, A. Al-Tamimi, A. M AH. Alroasi, 10, Al-Zefzaf, M. Barnitz, J.
Toward understanding the effects of cross-cultural schemata and discourse structure on second language reading comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 18 2 , Burman, T. University of Pennsylvania Press. Cohen, R. Language and Conflict Resolution: The Limits of English.