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When plastic deformation occurs in a grain, it will be constrained by its neighbors which may be less favorably oriented. As a result, polycrystalline metals are stronger than single crystals the exception is the perfect single crystal, as in whiskers. This topic is not included.
Mechanisms of Strengthening in Metals General principles. Ability to deform plastically depends on ability of dislocations to move. Strengthening consists in hindering dislocation motion. We discuss the methods of grain-size reduction, solid-solution alloying and strain hardening. These are for single-phase metals.
We discuss others when treating alloys. Ordinarily, strengthening reduces ductility. Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction This is based on the fact that it is difficult for a dislocation to pass into another grain, especially if it is very misaligned.
Atomic disorder at the boundary causes discontinuity in slip planes. For high-angle grain boundaries, stress at end of slip plane may trigger new dislocations in adjacent grains.
Small angle grain boundaries are not effective in blocking dislocations. The finer the grains, the larger the area of grain boundaries that impedes dislocation motion. Grain-size reduction usually improves toughness as well. Adding another element that goes into interstitial or substitutional positions in a solution increases strength.
The impurity atoms cause lattice strain Figs. This occurs when the strain caused by the alloying element compensates that of the dislocation, thus achieving a state of low potential energy.
It costs strain energy for the dislocation to move away from this state which is like a potential well. The scarcity of energy at low temperatures is why slip is hindered. Pure metals are almost always softer than their alloys. Strain Hardening Ductile metals become stronger when they are deformed plastically at temperatures well below the melting point cold working.
This is different from hot working is the shaping of materials at high temperatures where large deformation is possible. Strain hardening work hardening is the reason for the elastic recovery discussed in Ch. The reason for strain hardening is that the dislocation density increases with plastic deformation cold work due to multiplication.
Restoration to the state before cold-work is done by heating through two processes: recovery and recrystallization.
These may be followed by grain growth. The electrical and thermal conductivity are restored to the values existing before cold working. Recrystallization Strained grains of cold-worked metal are replaced, upon heating, by more regularly-spaced grains. Principle of phase control, circuits for control and UPS. Inverters: Series inverter, domestic inverter, PWM inverter, auxiliary commutated thyristor inverters, complementary commutated thyristor inverters, current-source inverters, pulse converters and hvdc link.
Breakdown of solid: Intrinsic breakdown, thermal breakdown, electro-mechanical breakdown, streamer breakdown. Breakdown of liquid: Breakdown of commercial liquid, cavitation theory, bubble theory, suspended particle theory.
Insulating materials. Insulation resistance. Tacking index. Electrical and mechanical properties of insulators used in transmission line. Different types of line insulators. String efficiency, bushings, general design approach of bushing. Cables: Different types of cables. Paper insulated cables, XLPE cables, gas-filled cables, technology and principles.
Generation of travelling waves in transmission lines, reflection and transmission constants. Power system grounding: Solid grounding, resistance grounding, reactance grounding, grounding through earthing transformer, resonant grounding. Group B Voltage surges: Lightning phenomena, lightning induced overvoltage, direct stroke, indirect stroke-Protection of power stations and sub-stations and transmission line against direct strokes. Protection of electrical apparatus against travelling waves.
Lightning arrestors—expulsion type, valve type, magnetic blow-out type and metal oxide type.
Insulation co-ordination: Determination of the line insulation, basic impulse level and insulation level of substation equipment. Selection of lightning arrester. Establishment of impulse withstand level.
Overvoltage due to switching. Reduction of switching overvoltage. Generation of high voltage and current in high voltage laboratory. Generation of high AC, DC and impulse voltage. Generation of high impulse current, impulse generator, testing transformer, source resonant circuit. Non-destructive testing of- materials and electrical apparatus. Measurement of DC resistivity, measurement of dielectric constant and loss factors, partial discharge measurement. Preventive testing of insulation: High voltage testing of insulators, bushings, cables and transformers.
High voltage testing of surge diverters. Symbols and circuit representation of various components of the system. Single line diagram. Per unit method of calculation: Base quantities and per unit values, modification of per unit values- due to change of base, equivalent circuit of transformer on per unit basis, choice of base quantities for power system analysis, advantages of per unit method of calculation, per unit impedance diagram of a power system.
Symmetrical components: Transformation of voltage, current and impedance to symmetrical component system, complex power in terms of transformed voltage and currents, positive, negative and zero sequence impedances of different power system components; equivalent circuits in terms of symmetrical component quantities, advantage of symmetrical component representation. Fault studies: Symmetrical three-phase fault calculation, fault MVA and circuit breaker capacity, current limiting reactor, their placement and usefulness.
Unsymmetrical faults, classification, analysis of L-G, L-L and L-L-G fault using symmetrical components, equivalent circuit for representation of different kinds of faults, calculation of fault current and post-fault voltages. Arcing ground, its consequences and remedy. Load flow study: The basic load flow problem and its importance, classification of system bus bars, formulation of load flow equations using bus admittance matrix, tteiative solution of load flow equations by Gauss-Seidel method, acceleration for convergence.
Economic load despatch: Generation cost, incremental cost, optimal loading of generators on a common bus bar, transmission loss formula, incremental transmission loss, generation scheduling taking care of transmission loss. Group B High voltage d. Power system control: Automatic load frequency and voltage control, speed governor, load sharing among synchronous generators, exciter, brushless excitation system. Power system stability: Transient power output of a synchronous machine, effect of voltage regulator and governor on enhancement of transient stability.
Power system protection: Electromagnetic relays, construction and operating principle of attracted armature, induction disc and induction cup type relay, inverse time lag relay, plug setting and time setting arrangement.
Overvoltage, overcurrent, earth fault and neutral displacement protection. Primary and backup protection, co-ordination of overcurrent relays in radial feeder protection, directional overcurrent relay, ring main and parallel feeder protection. Distance protection for transmission lines, three zone protection, tripping circuit, impedance setting for earth fault and phase fault types relays.
Errors in distance measurement, arcing fault, power swing, directional, reactance, mho, ohm and quadrilateral characteristics.
Differential protection schemes for generator and transformer, other protections of generator and transformer. Pilot wire relays for feeders and cables, carrier relays-blocking and inter-tripping schemes, carrier equipment, carrier phase comparison.
Number systems—binary, hexadecimal and BCD numbers, 2s complement and arithmetic operations. Memory interfacing-address decoding techniques, memory read and write operations. Memory map. Polled and interrupt modes of data transfer.
Introduction to bit microprocessor using as an example. Peripheral devices. Stack and subroutines. Addition, subtraction and multiplication routines.
Software delay and counting routines. Logical operations. Software development systems: Assemblers and cross-assemblers. Microprocessor applications. Microprocessor-based system design aids and trouble-shooting techniques. Group B Introduction to microcontroller: Comparison of various microcontrollers. Oscillator and clock. Memory organisations—program memory and data memory, internal RAM and bit addressable memory, special functions, registers, memory map. Alternate port functions.
Serial interface. Power down modes. Arithmetic routines, counting and timing under interrupt control, keyboard and display interface routines, accessing lookup tables. Software development systems. Assemblers and simulators. Microcontroller based system design and applications.
Performance calculations under various operating conditions. The equation of motion or 'swing' equation for synchronous motors and generators. Solutions of linearized swing equation, small oscillations of synchronous machines. Hunting of synchronous motors, elements of large oscillation of synchronous machines, concept of transient stability. Starting of synchronous motors with the help of damper windings, George's phenomenon. Brushless excitation of synchronous generators and motors. Synchronous-induction motor: Slip-ring induction motor run as synchronous motor.
Starting and running characteristics-combined synchronous motor and induction motor circle diagrams, performance calculation, design features. Concept of negative sequence and zero sequence reactances of synchronous machines. Group B Inverter operation of induction motors, space and time harmonies and their effects on the performance of induction motors.
Induction generators; Operation from bus-bars, self-excitation equivalent circuits and performance—its utility in wind power generation. Derivation of generalized expressions: a Transformer e. Variable reluctance and fractional and sub-fractional h. Control schemes and performance. Dynamics of electric drives. N-T characteristics of deferent industrial systems, four quadrant operation of drive systems, dynamic conditions of a drive system, steady state and transient stability of electrical drive.
Drive motor power supply: A general survey of different power supply systems for motor drive. Phase controlled line commutated converters.
DC choppers. Cyclo converters. AC voltage controllers. Group B Control of electric motors: DC drives - single phase and 3 phase converter drives.
Chopper drives, closed loop control of DC motor. Synchronous motor control: Voltage and frequency control, closed loop control of synchronous motors.
Quantities, units, standards and measurement: Luminous energy, luminous flux, spectral radiant flux, solid angle, luminous intensity, luminance, illuminance, luminous efficacy. Colour temperature, colour rendering index, reflectance, diffuser, etc. Lambert's cosine law, inverse square law and cosine law of illumination.
Polar curve, Roussea's diagram, illuminance flux meter, bench photometer intensity measurement , integrating sphere flux measurement. Optical system of human eye. Sources of light: Construction and electrical circuits of different sources of light, filament lamps, halogen temps, discharge lamps - sodium and mercury high pressure discharge lamps, tube and CFL lamps.
Lighting calculations for indoor and outdoor applications: Shop lighting, factory lighting, street lighting, flood lighting. Group B Electric heating, welding and electroplating: Induction heating—principle of operation, scope of high frequency and low frequency heating, induction heating, power supplies at different frequencies.
Induction heating furnaces—coreless and core types. Arc heating: AC arc heating—different arc electrodes, direct and indirect arc furnace and their power supply systems, electrode regulators, condition for maximum output, necessity of reactor in arc furnace, general arc furnace transformer construction, energy balance in arc furnace, advantages of direct arc furnaces.
Dielectric heating: Principle of operation, choice of voltage and frequency, electrode configuration. Resistance heating: Different resistance heating materials and their properties, causes of failures. Direct and indirect resistance heating furnace. Design of resistance elements. Electric welding: Resistance and arc welding and equipment for such welding. Electrolysis: Application of electrolysis, electro deposition, electro extraction, electro refining.
Correlation between time domain and frequency domain specifications. Error coefficients. Design approaches. Frequency domain vs. S-plane design. Types of compensation.
Controllability and observability of control systems. Cascade compensation: Lead, lag, and lag-lead compensators. Use of Bode diagram. Root locus, and Nyquist diagram for compensator design. Feedback compensator design, use of inverse Nyquist diagram, minor loop feedback compensation. PID controllers. Linear state variable feedback. Pole placement using state variable feedback.
Nonlinear systems: Types of common non-linearities. Properties of non-linear systems. Available techniques for analysing non-linear systems.
Linearising approximations. Describing function techniques.