Business communication building critical skills 6th edition pdf

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Full file at mtn-i.info Skills-6th-Edition-Locker-Solutions-Manual Module 02 - Adapting Your Message to. Full file at mtn-i.info Skills-6th-Edition-Locker-Test-Bank Chapter 02 Adapting Your Message to Your . Business Communication: Building Critical Skills, 6th edition Kitty Locker, PDF d0wnl0ad, audio books, books to read, good books to read, cheap books, good.

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Business Communication Building Critical Skills 6th Edition Pdf

As revision to the third edition of BCS neared completion Business Communication: Building Critical Skills helps you build the writing, speaking, and listening skills that are Unit Six fTrsearcr -Reports and Vistialf3- Business communication: building critical skills / Kitty O. Locker, Stephen Sixth edition. building critical skills / Kitty Locker, Stephen Kaczmarek. - 3rd ed. Business communication: building critical skills by Kitty O Locker · Business communication Sixth edition, international edition. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Sntzl1 Nix. Full file at https: LO Define audiences for messages. LO Apply strategies for individual and group audience analyses. LO Apply strategies for audience needs analysis. LO Adapt messages for audiences.

Kinds of Communication on the Team Communication on the team serves three functions: Administrative discourse organizes the team to play and includes announcements of the dates and times of games and practice sessions, who the opponent is, what positions people will play, and the order in which players will bat.

Practical discourse directly relates to techniques and strategy. It includes communication between players on the field or comments from the coach to players on how to play. Social communication is the most common kind. Specialized Terms Used by the Team Baseball terms can be used in softball since the rules and games are so similar.

Fans use less technical terms such as KO, hit, and strike. Our team uses more technical terms than our fans do. Fans use the term double play. Our team uses turn two to describe a particular kind of double play. The turn in turn two denotes the act of getting the lead runner the base runner furthest along the bases. To make double play you don't have to get the lead runner out, but to turn two you do.

Sports writers are more specific. They might refer to a double play, which describes who fielded the ball, whom the ball was thrown to for the first out, and whom the ball was thrown to for the second out. Discourse Community Analysis Kitty O. Locker 2 August 21, Another difference in terminology pertains to a type of base hit hitting the ball and safely making it to base.

The current buzz word among sports writers for this is fleer, denoting a softly hit ball that falls between the infield and the outfield where neither player can reach the ball. I recently saw a stat on the number of fleers that a team gave up during a season.

Our coach uses the term hitting the seam when he wants us to hit a ball between the infield and the outfield. Our fans just call that a hit. Topics Discussed by the Team In games, topics focus on the team and how we are doing. Even here, detail is spared: Some topics come up in practice but not in games. Loses are never discussed during games. Most social communication occurs during practices. It was great. Should the U. What's happening there is awful, but it's not our job to fix it.

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We had a hard time with turning two the other night. Some topics would be inappropriate both in games and in practices. Cursing is another form of language that doesn't occur on this team. Most Christians believe that curse words are inappropriate if not immoral.

Locker 3 August 21, Larry: I thought he was having some problems after getting laid off, but I never realized he was having that sort of problem. Even when a topic is not seen as immoral or offensive, it may be inappropriate if few players would be interested in it or if not everyone is educated enough to discuss it.

For example, I had an Astronomy class last quarter which taught the Pauli theory. This theory would be inappropriate to discuss since not everyone is interested in or understands nuclear physics and chemistry.

Communication Channels and Messages Face-to-face oral communication is the most widely used channel. In practices, one person usually the coach often speaks to many people at a time, telling the team what to do in certain situations or instructing the team in the best way to swing a bat.

During games, many people may simultaneously tell a player where to throw the ball. Both these channels carry authoritarian messages, with no expectation of verbal feedback. Those doing the telling aren't giving suggestions or emotional support; they are giving the person with the ball an order. Cheering may be designed to elicit nonverbal, not verbal, feedback, but its messages are supportive and motivational, not informational or directive.

Social communication usually has more people speaking. People are expected to respond in words to what other people say; everyone has the opportunity to speak. Nonverbal communication is common. In administrative and social communication, nonverbal usually augments verbal channels, but it can substitute for verbal cues during practical communication during a game or practice.

For example, when the coach at third base wants to signal a base runner to keep going, he waves his arms in a circle. When he wants the runner to stop, he puts both hands out in front of him. These channels differ from other discourse communities of which the same people are a part.

For example, the church finance committee uses written reports and letters, and many members of the softball team are on the finance committee. Perhaps the difference is that the softball team is less formal. Locker 4 August 21, lineup for a game, the schedule, or even the won-loss record--may not be saved when the season is over. Authority, Facts, and Credibility in This Community Authority during games is divided between the coach and the umpire.

The coach assigns positions, determines the batting order, and tells a base runner whether to keep running. The umpire has the final say on whether a pitch is a ball or strike and whether a runner is safe or out.

Team members rarely challenge a decision openly during a game. Semanticists believe that only observations are facts. However, on our team, a Afact can be anything the majority of players believe to be true, even though this belief is based on what someone says. If someone who knows a great deal about the game says that a base runner was safe when the umpire called him out, most of the teammates would agree that the runner was indeed safe but that the umpire made the wrong call.

Semantics would say that the team's theory that the runner was safe was an inference, not a fact. In semantics, inferences are things that individuals can prove to be true. An inference for this softball team is a belief or theory about something based on observations. For example, if a player pops up every time he bats, he is probably dropping his back shoulder. However, the person inferring the cause hasn't consciously observed the dropped shoulder; instead, the inference could be based on knowledge of the game and reading.

Making valid inferences is one way to gain credibility. Baseball is America's pastime, and softball is our church's pastime.

It's fun for the whole family. All they do is come and watch grown men relive their youth. For the men on the team, it's like playing on the majors. Well, almost. The season is over now; the softball bats need to be stored away for next year. Winter will soon be here. Then one warm spring day, the team will decide to have practice.

That's when the fun begins. Organizational Culture Analysis September 23, To: Kitty Locker From: Theresa Davis Subject: Anyone who is overweight can join the program by paying an initial service fee and then a weekly membership fee. The main purpose of Weight Watchers is to help people lose weight safely.

To a certain extent, each class is a subculture, since different leaders have different styles. I will analyze the culture of the Wednesday night group in Bexley. Members sometimes talk about their problems with the leader at the scales, but since there is usually a line, the leader asks people who have time-consuming concerns to stay after the meeting.

After they've weighed in, members sit in chairs arranged in rows. Some people talk to each other; some people read the materials. After everyone is weighed, the leader gives an inspiring minute talk on our struggle to lose weight.

She opens by telling her name and the story of her own weight loss. My leader lost pounds three years ago as a Weight Watchers member. Next, the leader usually asks how the past week went, what went well, and whether people used the strategies from the previous week.

Each meeting has a topic: Sometimes the lecturer does most of the talking; sometimes members ask a lot of questions and share concerns and strategies with each other. Learning about the Organization New members receive a booklet that talks not only about losing weight but also about the Weight Watchers philosophy. Later on, the member will get other booklets--on exercise, dining out, and dealing with eating challenges.

Sometimes the leader distributes handouts, either official Weight Watchers information or things she has brought. A free newsletter is distributed once a month. Members can download cookbooks and subscribe to the Weight Watchers magazine. Organizational Culture Analysis Kitty O. Locker 2 September 23, Oral and interpersonal channels are even more important. Members are encouraged to get to know each other. Although the leader often lectures, questions and discussion are encouraged.

There's lots of informal discussion at the scales and after meetings. Visual channels are also used. Sometimes leaders bring food to be weighed or measured to discuss portion size. Admit to yourself that you have a weight problem. Establish the desire to lose weight. Establish the dedication to stick with the program by following the diet and attending the meetings.

Learn to like yourself. People who expect immediate success or who have not come to terms with their feelings and their bodies are less likely to be successful, even if they initially lose weight. Someone who failed the program is a woman who lost 30 pounds in four months and then gained it all back plus 20 additional pounds. She allowed a personal crisis to throw her off course, and she never got back on the program.

Now she hates the way she looks. She complains about her weight but does nothing about it. She could have continued to come to meetings and turned to the group for the support she needed to get through a stressful situation.

She feels that Weight Watchers failed her, but really she failed Weight Watchers. If people follow the plan closely, it works. Cheating on the diet defeats the purpose. A woman who joined six weeks ago has only lost half a pound.

She is frustrated, but she is not successful because she does not follow the program. She has not established the dedication needed for success.

In contrast, another woman is a good example of overcoming challenges and being in control. This woman obviously loves to eat because she easily weighs over pounds.

But a few weeks ago she went to the state fair and instead of eating all the fattening food sold there, she packed her own lunch and stayed on program. She takes a great interest in our group and her dedication is sincere. She wants to see everyone succeed. Also she is not ashamed of who she was before she lost weight. She passes around photographs of herself when she was fat and inspires others to lose weight.

Rituals and Rewards of Weight Watchers Weighing in at every meeting is the most obvious ritual. Another ritual is announcing the total weight lost by the group that week. Rewards are so common they are almost rituals, too.

Members who have lost 10 pounds get red ribbons; they get gold stars to put on the ribbon for each additional pound loss. People also get stickers or coupons for exercising or drinking the full eight glasses of water a day. Often the group claps for people who share specific weight losses with the group--even small ones.

A member who reaches goal weight gets a certificate and a silver pin. Someone who is more than two pounds over pays the weekly fee not the initial fee until he or she is back to goal. Why Choose the Weight Watchers Program?

I joined the program because I know several people who lost weight on it. I did not know of any other weight loss program that has the success that Weight Watchers does.

The people in my group and my leader are very supportive.

Also, Weight Watchers is affordable. There is a small registration fee and a weekly membership fee. However, to some individuals, any policy that gives special treatment to some holidays at what is perceived as the expense of others is a problem.

In government organizations, some people may object to the notion of religion being endorsed by employers, if the holiday is a religious one. Successful answers will stress that all employees are being given equal access to ten holidays but that some latitude must be granted to managers to recognize what holidays exist—for instance, a holiday that is verifiable in a reference text certainly would apply; one that is only celebrated by a single family would not.

A potential follow-up assignment could be to ask students to write a memo to the boss advocating which holidays should be recognized by the organization. Any such communication would require that the writer carefully analyze the organizational culture, as well as be sensitive to differences in the workplace.

Polishing Your Prose: Comma Splices Odd-numbered answers are in the back of the textbook. Several answers are possible—here are likely ones. Wednesday was the last time we did anything on our Facebook page. Please ask Sandy to post an update on our news feed. Suri decided to hold the meeting online, which will save a considerable amount of money in our travel budget.

The downloading Department needs copies of receipts from your Kyoto trip. If you submit them by Friday, you will be reimbursed. After the executive council meeting, we got a call that our proposal had been accepted, which was great news for the team!

Lani Kapur, who is an Oxford graduate and spent several years in Geneva, is fluent in French and German. She would be an excellent candidate to lead the consulting team in Western Europe. Appendix 2-A: A Memo to Workers February 5, To: Loading Dock Workers From: Doug Wilkins 0 Subject: To keep the trucks rolling out on schedule, please be sure to double-check each invoice to make sure that the entire order is ready before loading any truck.

By checking the invoices and loading only complete orders, we can keep things running smoothly on the docks--and do each job just once. A Memo to Workers Addresses the appropriate audience Subject line describes memo content Shows the background information important to the audience Makes request in positive terms. A Memo to the Boss February 5, To: Improved Loading Dock Efficiency Thanks to the new Just-in-Time order-pulling and loading schedule, the loading dock crews have been able to keep up with the increased volume on the docks due to the seasonal rush.

The loading dock crews have done remarkably well in adjusting to the new system. Attached is a copy of a memo reminding employees to always check the invoice against the order. Discourse Community Analysis August 21, To: Kitty O. Locker From: Gary Griffith Subject: With a record of twelve wins and three loses, we finished third in our league. The team consists of fourteen male players between the ages of 14 and 48 who all attend the Pickerington Church of the Nazarene a requirement for membership on the team.

Kinds of Communication on the Team Communication on the team serves three functions: Administrative discourse organizes the team to play and includes announcements of the dates and times of games and practice sessions, who the opponent is, what positions people will play, and the order in which players will bat.

Practical discourse directly relates to techniques and strategy. It includes communication between players on the field or comments from the coach to players on how to play. Social communication is the most common kind. Specialized Terms Used by the Team Baseball terms can be used in softball since the rules and games are so similar. Fans use less technical terms such as KO, hit, and strike. Our team uses more technical terms than our fans do.

Fans use the term double play.

Our team uses turn two to describe a particular kind of double play. The turn in turn two denotes the act of getting the lead runner the base runner furthest along the bases. To make double play you don't have to get the lead runner out, but to turn two you do.

Sports writers are more specific. They might refer to a double play, which describes who fielded the ball, whom the ball was thrown to for the first out, and whom the ball was thrown to for the second out.

Discourse Community Analysis Kitty O. Locker 2 August 21, Another difference in terminology pertains to a type of base hit hitting the ball and safely making it to base. The current buzz word among sports writers for this is fleer, denoting a softly hit ball that falls between the infield and the outfield where neither player can reach the ball.

I recently saw a stat on the number of fleers that a team gave up during a season. Our coach uses the term hitting the seam when he wants us to hit a ball between the infield and the outfield.

Our fans just call that a hit.

Topics Discussed by the Team In games, topics focus on the team and how we are doing. Even here, detail is spared: Some topics come up in practice but not in games. Loses are never discussed during games. Most social communication occurs during practices. It was great. Should the U. What's happening there is awful, but it's not our job to fix it.

We had a hard time with turning two the other night. Some topics would be inappropriate both in games and in practices. Cursing is another form of language that doesn't occur on this team. Most Christians believe that curse words are inappropriate if not immoral.

Locker 3 August 21, Larry: I thought he was having some problems after getting laid off, but I never realized he was having that sort of problem.

Even when a topic is not seen as immoral or offensive, it may be inappropriate if few players would be interested in it or if not everyone is educated enough to discuss it. For example, I had an Astronomy class last quarter which taught the Pauli theory.

This theory would be inappropriate to discuss since not everyone is interested in or understands nuclear physics and chemistry.

Communication Channels and Messages Face-to-face oral communication is the most widely used channel.

In practices, one person usually the coach often speaks to many people at a time, telling the team what to do in certain situations or instructing the team in the best way to swing a bat. During games, many people may simultaneously tell a player where to throw the ball. Both these channels carry authoritarian messages, with no expectation of verbal feedback. Those doing the telling aren't giving suggestions or emotional support; they are giving the person with the ball an order.

Cheering may be designed to elicit nonverbal, not verbal, feedback, but its messages are supportive and motivational, not informational or directive.

Social communication usually has more people speaking. People are expected to respond in words to what other people say; everyone has the opportunity to speak.

Nonverbal communication is common. In administrative and social communication, nonverbal usually augments verbal channels, but it can substitute for verbal cues during practical communication during a game or practice.

For example, when the coach at third base wants to signal a base runner to keep going, he waves his arms in a circle. When he wants the runner to stop, he puts both hands out in front of him. These channels differ from other discourse communities of which the same people are a part. For example, the church finance committee uses written reports and letters, and many members of the softball team are on the finance committee. Perhaps the difference is that the softball team is less formal.

Locker 4 August 21, lineup for a game, the schedule, or even the won-loss record--may not be saved when the season is over. Authority, Facts, and Credibility in This Community Authority during games is divided between the coach and the umpire.

The coach assigns positions, determines the batting order, and tells a base runner whether to keep running. The umpire has the final say on whether a pitch is a ball or strike and whether a runner is safe or out. Team members rarely challenge a decision openly during a game. Semanticists believe that only observations are facts. However, on our team, a Afact can be anything the majority of players believe to be true, even though this belief is based on what someone says. If someone who knows a great deal about the game says that a base runner was safe when the umpire called him out, most of the teammates would agree that the runner was indeed safe but that the umpire made the wrong call.

Semantics would say that the team's theory that the runner was safe was an inference, not a fact. In semantics, inferences are things that individuals can prove to be true.

An inference for this softball team is a belief or theory about something based on observations. For example, if a player pops up every time he bats, he is probably dropping his back shoulder. However, the person inferring the cause hasn't consciously observed the dropped shoulder; instead, the inference could be based on knowledge of the game and reading. Making valid inferences is one way to gain credibility.

Baseball is America's pastime, and softball is our church's pastime. It's fun for the whole family. All they do is come and watch grown men relive their youth. For the men on the team, it's like playing on the majors. Well, almost. The season is over now; the softball bats need to be stored away for next year. Winter will soon be here.

Then one warm spring day, the team will decide to have practice. That's when the fun begins. Organizational Culture Analysis September 23, To: Kitty Locker From: Theresa Davis Subject: Anyone who is overweight can join the program by paying an initial service fee and then a weekly membership fee.

The main purpose of Weight Watchers is to help people lose weight safely. To a certain extent, each class is a subculture, since different leaders have different styles. I will analyze the culture of the Wednesday night group in Bexley. Members sometimes talk about their problems with the leader at the scales, but since there is usually a line, the leader asks people who have time-consuming concerns to stay after the meeting.

After they've weighed in, members sit in chairs arranged in rows. Some people talk to each other; some people read the materials. After everyone is weighed, the leader gives an inspiring minute talk on our struggle to lose weight. She opens by telling her name and the story of her own weight loss. My leader lost pounds three years ago as a Weight Watchers member.

Next, the leader usually asks how the past week went, what went well, and whether people used the strategies from the previous week. Each meeting has a topic: Sometimes the lecturer does most of the talking; sometimes members ask a lot of questions and share concerns and strategies with each other. Learning about the Organization New members receive a booklet that talks not only about losing weight but also about the Weight Watchers philosophy.

Later on, the member will get other booklets--on exercise, dining out, and dealing with eating challenges. Sometimes the leader distributes handouts, either official Weight Watchers information or things she has brought.

A free newsletter is distributed once a month. Members can download cookbooks and subscribe to the Weight Watchers magazine. Organizational Culture Analysis Kitty O. Locker 2 September 23, Oral and interpersonal channels are even more important. Members are encouraged to get to know each other. Although the leader often lectures, questions and discussion are encouraged. There's lots of informal discussion at the scales and after meetings. Visual channels are also used.

Sometimes leaders bring food to be weighed or measured to discuss portion size. Admit to yourself that you have a weight problem. Establish the desire to lose weight. Establish the dedication to stick with the program by following the diet and attending the meetings.

Learn to like yourself. Using sentences of the same length E. Appendices are used in messages to: If primary audiences will have more knowledge than other audiences then writers must: Which of the following must be avoided when drafting an effective message? Use of table of contents B. Use of glossary C. Use of personal pronouns D. Use of appendices E. Trevor is required to present details of investment policies at his firm to a potential client.

Which of the following channels of communication would be most effective in this case? Written message on paper B. Written message via e-mail C. Oral message via phone D. Oral message via video conference E.

Oral messages make it easier to: How many kinds of audiences are present in an organizational setting? What is information overload? List the four dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Differentiate between the use of demographics and psychographics in audience analysis. What are VALS profiles? When is it acceptable to take a while to make a point? Briefly explain what "red flag" words are and why they should be avoided.

Give three examples of such words.

Business communication building critical skills canadian 6th edition …

What should be the level of formality in a message? What are the advantages of written messages over other channels? Fill in the Blank Questions TRUE The secondary audience may be asked to comment on the message or to implement ideas after they have been approved. Communication Blooms: Remember Learning Objective: Level of Difficulty: Who is my audience? FALSE In an organizational setting, a message may have five separate audiences—the primary audience, secondary audience, initial audience, gatekeeper, and the watchdog audience.

TRUE A gatekeeper has the power to stop your message before it gets to the primary audience. In some cases, gatekeepers exist outside the organization. TRUE A watchdog audience, though it does not have the power to stop the message and will not act directly on it, has political, social, or economic power.

Frequently, a supervisor is both the initial audience and the gatekeeper. Sometimes the initial audience is also the primary audience that will act on the message. FALSE The watchdog pays close attention to the transaction between the writers and the primary audience and may base future actions on its evaluation of the message. Understand Learning Objective: Why is my audience so important? TRUE Good business communication is audience-centered. This is literal perception: FALSE Words are not the only way to convey ideas; gestures, clothing, and pictures can carry meaning nonverbally.

The stage of putting ideas into any of these symbols is called encoding. TRUE Noise can interfere with every aspect of the communication process. Noise may be physical or psychological. Physical noise could be a phone line with static, a lawn mower roaring outside a classroom, or handwriting that is hard to read.

A small business may have only two phone lines; no one else can get through if both lines are in use. TRUE Miscommunication can occur because different people have different frames of reference. People always interpret messages in light of their personal experiences, their cultures and subcultures, and even the point in history at which they live. TRUE Empathy is the ability to put oneself in someone else's shoes, to feel with that person.

What do I need to know about my audience s? Moreover, even if they've told readers before, readers may not remember the old information when they read the new message.

To remind readers of information in a tactful way, it is useful to preface statements with "As you may know. TRUE Demographic characteristics are measurable features that can be counted objectively: There are many ways to analyze personality. For business, one of the most useful is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator instrument, which uses four pairs of dichotomies to identify ways that people differ— Extraversion—Introversion; Sensing—Intuition; Thinking—Feeling; Judging—Perceiving.

For instance, Strivers are motivated by achievement and are relatively low in resources and innovation. These conspicuous consumers try to be in style, even without a lot of money. TRUE When devising a strategy for a message, it is important to protect the reader's ego. Now that I have my analysis, what do I do with it? The major exceptions are when writers must persuade a reluctant reader and when writers have bad news and want to let the reader down gradually.

FALSE When developing the style of a message, it is important to use conversational, not "academic," language. TRUE In the body of the document, it is important to provide enough detail for primary audiences and for anyone else who could veto the proposal.

What if my audiences have different needs? TRUE In the body of the document, writers must assume the degree of knowledge that primary audiences will have. If primary audiences will have more knowledge than other audiences, writers must provide a glossary of terms.

How do I reach my audience s? E-mail messages are appropriate for routine messages to people writers already know. Paper is usually better for someone to whom they're writing for the first time. TRUE Important messages should use more formal channels, whether they're oral or written.

Oral and written messages have many similarities. None of the above Just as every sport has rules about scoring, so, too, do workplaces have rules about what "counts.

Carl is only concerned with his employees getting the work done and does not enforce a strict schedule. Analytic Blooms: Apply Learning Objective: None of the above The council members form the primary audience. The primary audience will decide whether to accept Tracy's recommendations or will act on the basis of her message.

None of the above A gatekeeper has the power to stop a message before it gets to the primary audience. A watchdog audience, though it does not have the power to stop a message and will not act directly on it, has political, social, or economic power. Thus in this case, the client is a primary audience. None of the above The primary audience will decide whether to accept recommendations or will act on the basis of a message.

The initial audience receives the message first and routes it to other audiences. Sometimes the initial audience also tells the writer to write the message. Compiler The communication process involves the sender, receiver, the transmitted message, and the channel used to transmit it.

Audience is central to the communication process. The process begins when a person, the sender, perceives some stimulus. None of the above The process begins when Person A perceives some stimulus. Next, Person A interprets what has been perceived. The next step is for Person A to choose or select the information to be sent to Person B.

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