Biyani's Think Tank. Concept based notes. Business Communication. [BBA-Sem I ]. Manisha Singh. Revised by: Ms Prity Birla. Lecturer. Deptt. of Science &. comm final exam (first half) chapter getting the message across business communication as path to success -how to write, speak, and listen on the. Lasswell () classic definition of communication defines communication as: who. (source or Business Communication – an introduction Moreover, Lewis (a) notes that until the importance of mission statements, vision.
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Discuss the role of effective business communication within and A person who counterfeits currency notes, treasury bills or bonds may find himself in the. Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. Communication is the life blood of social as well as corporate world. We exist because we General communication is different from business communication / Administrative communication. According to (e.g.: mtn-i.info).
These are the principal elements in the cycle of communication. Some understanding of this part of the process by the sender is very helpful because it can influence the way the information is encoded and the media and channels used to convey the message. This is by far the most likely source of the problem. The number of elements mean that there is a lot that can go wrong.
It could be due to lack of concentration in either party. They include the ability to express ideas clearly in writing. We all believe that language is shared by everyone. Barriers Caused by Sender and Recipient When you are thinking about these. Barriers to communication Any system which involves the exchange of information. Inadequate communication skills Communication skills are the abilities to send and receive messages clearly and effectively.
I am sure that. The latter is often the case when a specialist in a technical field tries to address a non-specialist audience: Distortion in communication can lead to incorrect understanding of the message.
They also include the ability to read — not only to read words on a page. More often they arise from incomplete understanding of the information.
These may be divided into two kinds. Distortion Distortion is a process which occurs either at the stage of encoding or decoding the message. In such cases. It comes about when the information is put into form. If they are extreme. Messages are incorrectly encoded. For example. Other Barriers There are three more general elements.
Lack of listening ability The ability to listen is an essential ability for all of us. Attitudes All of us have certain attitudes towards daily life.
Attitudes to moral questions. A major barrier to communication is created when one or the other party fails to process the necessary communication skills. Unless we have it we are unable to understand what is going on around us.
Incorrect Information As well as the more complex barriers discussed above. This then. This can result in the wrong message being received. Whatever their form. You could argue that. The term is used to include the ability to work out the way in which somebody is responding to an item of communication.
In the study of communication. Defining the Purpose Ask yourself what is the purpose of this communication — what are you trying to achieve. Overcoming the barriers Many of the most important barriers to communicating may be overcome by following a few simple rules. This is always a good exercise to perform before sending off a written communication. As a result. People in business — from shoppers to senior managers — rarely have time on non-essential matters.
Knowing When and How to Communicate 8. Knowing what not to say is almost as important as knowing what to say — so cut out all material which is not central to your intentions.
You must make sure that the message achieves its purpose. This must be the over-riding consideration. Think carefully about what you want the recipient to do in response to your communication. This is really another way of saying that you must define your purpose carefully and exactly. The physical environment within which a communication takes place can be very significant.
Barriers Caused by Outside Influences Noise Noise is the name given to the feature of the setting in which the communication takes place which interfere with the accurate transfer of information. It can also refer to other kinds of interference such as poor telephone connection or unreadable photocopying.
Defining exactly the response you are seeking can help a great deal. In literal terms. By considering how a communication might be received you are more likely to shape a message that will not be misinterpreted or misunderstood. Such a mistake can cause all kind of misunderstanding. In a business context. If you write to wrong person. We have seen how distortion may occur at encoding when insufficient care is taken by the sender over meeting the needs of the recipient.
Always make sure. On a different level. In other words. In all forms. Understanding the Receiver I have left this until last because it is the single most important rule for effective communication. One way is to think carefully before encoding messages in order to give full messages and not 9.
For some situations. These are the kinds of questions you need to ask yourself when thinking about beginning the communication process. Choosing the moment for communication. Judging the right moment to make a communication is often important in business. Of prime importance is the purpose of your message — how do you want the recipient to react?
Some people deliberately write letter so that they will arrive on a Friday. Always think carefully about the best kind of communication medium for a particular situation and recipient. Worse still you may give an impression of inefficiency. It is always important to understand the relationship between the sender and the receiver. Issues of status between the sender and receiver can also be relevant — the way in which something is said or written may be interpreted differently if the sender is in a superior position.
Medium and Channel You will remember that. They also include the ability to talk to a wide range of people in formal and informal situations to achieve a range of purposes. Forms Of Communication Message. A simple awareness of these abilities — particularly the last — as skills.
Avoid jargon or technical words that may not be understood and try to avoid ambiguity. These three elements are closely interrelated but they do not describe different aspects of the process. Communication skills cover the ability to write clear English so that a meaning is expressed directly and without ambiguity. Successful communication occurs when the barriers of prejudice.
Most effective business communication is based on credibility — the receiver needs to feel comfortable with the message. These include the range of reading skills. Accuracy and precision in the message is important if it is to be decoded correctly. More important. Personal Communication Skills This is one of the simplest ways in which communication may be improved. Following these rules will not guarantee perfect communication on every occasion.
We shall briefly review the role of each of these types of communication in the following sections. But first we shall consider the various forms that written and oral communication can take. We shall also look at the non-verbal communication and the part it plays in the communication process.
Clarity is essential and this means more than just writing grammatically and spelling correctly although both of these do help. It means choosing the right medium and. Think of them as a handy reminder to enable you to learn the various possibilities quickly and to jog your memory as to the range of possibilities.
Types of Written and Oral Communication sets out the main form of business communication in roughly their order of complexity. In this section we shall principally be concerned with verbal communication — in its written and oral spoken form. Type of written and oral communication Written Oral Informal note Unplanned encounter Memorandum usually called a Planned. Generally typed. The great advantage of letters is that they can convey a number of points clearly in writing.
This has the advantage of being more private and also more immediate. As it is usually very short. This has the advantage that it allows more detailed explanation. The disadvantage of letters are that they may be misinterpreted.
Its advantage lies in the speed with which it can be written. Memos This is more formal note sent to a working colleague. It is suitable for communicating short. Under such circumstances a personal meeting might be much more efficient as a means of communication.
It does. Letters Letters are used to communicate with people outside the company or organization. E-mail is being used in organisations for both informal notes and memos. Although letters are normally used to communicate with people outside an organization. The advantage of expressing a point in full depth in writing has to be balanced against potential resistance on the part of the recipient. Possible alternatives would include a telephone call or personal meeting.
Some organizations also use a longer memo. For this reason. They are cheap when compared with the obvious alternatives — telephone calls or personal meetings — and they are confidential. Informal note This would be sent to a close working colleague to communicate an item of information very quickly.
They have the advantages of visual impact — if properly designed — and of saving time and money in making a large number of separate communications to individuals.
Their value lies in providing an accurate and full examination of a particular event or situation. Reports Reports can take many forms. Forms and questionnaires The great advantage of these documents is that they allow information to be gained from a large number of people in standard format. The first of these causes problems because many people dislike writing letters.
The advantages are that the information that the call has taken place is conveyed and that short simple messages can be transmitted effectively.
For this reason great care is needed in their design since a poorly worded question may fail to elicit the required information Alternative to forms include: Notices Notices are a clear and direct form of communication items of importance to larger numbers of people within an organization. At best. Many people find forms very difficult to complete.
Their disadvantages arise mainly from the fact that people may get out of the habit of looking at noticeboards if they become cluttered and overcrowded. In addition.
There are however. Written telephone messages This is usually recorded on pre-printed form. The alternative — verbal issue of policies or procedures — is liable to inconsistency between individuals. Press releases The press release is used to pass on a piece of information to a newspaper or group of newspapers.
Planned informal talk The advantage here is that the sender has more control over the encounter. Its advantage is that the data it contains is conveyed in the language of the company.
There are no effective alternatives to reports. In this lies their chief merit. Oral Communication i Unplanned encounter Oral communication in this situation tends to suffer from a lack of control. Meeting of individuals This is a slightly more formal encounter.
Oral presentations may supplement written reports. This can lead to failure to communication the desired information or. Their disadvantage. An alternative would be telephone call. Training and procedure documents Since these represent a form of reference. The alternative — a press interview — is often less effective unless the interviewee is skilled and experienced in dealing with reporters.
In consequence. Alternative include letters. Disadvantages include the lack of a record in writing. Telephone calls These have the advantage of speed and immediacy. Interviews Interviews may have various purposes — selection.
The main disadvantage is that too many different views may case confusion and uncertainty. The main advantage is that several points of view can be brought together and a conclusion evolved from them.
There is also the problem that a call may come at the wrong time for the recipient. Each needs careful and thorough preparation from both participants. Although committees can become unwieldy. Group meetings These have all the advantages and disadvantages of personal encounters. The advantages of such encounters are the same as those given for meeting of individuals. Committee meetings Committees are constituted in a very clear manner. Despite this. They have the disadvantage that all the other signals.
Disadvantages include the fact that. This formality allows discussion of quite complicated matters in a way. The main ones are as follows. Its advantage is that it allows one person to present a clear view of a particular topic with considerable immediacy in a manner that is more concise than a written report. Choosing The Medium In thinking about the various forms of communication outlined above.
The Characteristics of Written Communication a. Alternatives include discovering opinions by forms or questionnaires. This is not foolproof. Here we shall pick out the particular characteristics of each. The use of visual aids in presentations should be regarded as almost essential. Disadvantages are that there is no guarantee that the information will be assimilated by the recipients.
The recipient has the original document. This means that there can be no misunderstanding over what has been said at a late date. This deficiency can. Advantages of written communication Regardless of which kind or form is used.
You can easily think of examples of the truth of this from your own experience. In writing it is always possible to cross out one version and replace it with a better. Formal lecture or presentation This form of communication is becoming increasingly popular.
Disadvantages are that large meetings are unwieldy. Not only do they display a degree of human feeling and appreciation. Disadvantages of written communication These general advantages of written form over the spoken form are strong in certain areas. One of the implications of this is that. To balance them. Some situations. When feelings are strong. Some situations demand a personal contact because otherwise they would appear discourteous.
For most people. If you provide your message in writing. This is particularly true for job interviews and other kinds of appraisal.
Of course. This may suggest avoiding a confrontation. The same is true for communications with important clients. Written documents which presents the facts of a situation are more likely to be accurate and dispassionate than oral explanations to an interested party.
This allows much collaborative working between individual or groups. Early stage of this kind clearly need to be discussions. This true to some extent. Example of this are the early stages of meetings to discuss contracts or mergers. With written communication. Advantages of Oral Communication Used properly and in the right place. The communication cycle is completed quickly.
This would be in response to feedback the sender getting signals from the receiver either in spoken form or through non-verbal gestures that the message is not being understood. Note that the increasing use of E-mail is changing written communication in that feedback can now be obtained very quickly. The Characteristics of Oral Communication a. We noted above how a message can often be modified during a spoken communication in order to ensure understanding.
Much business people today like to make a recording of meetings using a miniature cassette recorder — so even the most unofficial. And during the period in which feedback is awaited if it comes at all.
You might argue that misreadings of this kind are the fault of the sender and not really of the medium at all. This is because. Everyone involved in communications should work hard to avoid such situations. This is where oral communication can be so mush better. These are the aspects of communication which take place without the use of words — the gestures.
The reader may not lack the ability to understand what you have said in a letter. Disadvantages of Oral Communication Not everything about spoken communication is good. What it means is that in face-to-face meetings ideas can be expressed accurately. W e will consider these shortly. A personal meeting shows that you are genuinely interested in the person. Again you can see how useful this can be. It also means that those who take the decisions will be able to take into account all the points which seem relevant and discuss them.
If something is said which you do not fully or immediately understand. You should also bear in mind that a final decision may rest on information still to be obtained.
Once everyone has aired their views and all the various arguments have been put forward and considered. This means that they can avoid the delay inevitable in written communication. In this way. This is particularly important in meetings of committees and large bodies. They give those in positions of authority within a company a chance to show that they concerned about the ideas and feelings of their staff if they are willing to meet and discuss issues with them in person.
In this process of scanning. Here are some of its disadvantages: Photocopying or printing processes can bring news media into our homes every day which can be referred to again and again.
There cannot. It justifies an activity and provides back-up and proof. Words are tangible. This can be tiring and can defeat your aims in two ways — by wasting time and by reducing your positive approach to the personal exchange at the end of the journey.
Using Written and Oral Communication Written correspondence within or between organisations may take many forms. We attach an enormously high value to written text. Written text makes information immediately available to an almost unlimited audience simply by dint of reproduction. Whereas oral communication needs to be succinct and clear of purpose. It provides the history of a project or collaboration.
We pay more attention to even poorly expressed words in textual form than we would ever give if they were spoken to us. The crucial difference between oral and written communications will be the importance attributed to each. Oral communication will be the basic for almost all negotiations. If we consider graffiti. When we write to confirm arrangements. Once written down. Written communication can be used as evidence of previous discussions and arrangements.
There is a distance between the act of speaking and the act of writing. This means that the relationship between the two-may co lour the interaction and distort the meaning. It is no wonder that copyright law and libel are major issues of our time.
This is especially relevant to selection interviews. This is particularly important in cases where possible issues of conflict are involved.
When to use oral communication Clearly. You may wish to raise matters carefully. Some of the more suitable occasions are as follows: When to use written communication We use written communication most frequently to: A written communication is bereft of those interpersonal skills and allows us to judge and interpret the actual words in order to make a considered response.
If you combine your disapproving look with words that convey your feelings. Here we shall develop these strategies further by looking in details at the In these circumstances.
Sometimes non-verbal communication ca contradict what you say. Understanding non-verbal communication is important when you are dealing with internal and external customers because it is a powerful tool in your personal communications mix.
The Importance of Non-Verbal Communication When you communicate you may not be aware that non-verbal communication occurs and adds to what you say or hear. You can use it to reinforce the message you are conveying and you can use it to conceal message you would prefer not to communicate. Before you actually say something you can establish your positing by the way you dress.
Non-verbal communication covers a range of factors. We then move on to examine the organization of the information you need to communicate. Planning Most people. These principles underlie all forms of communication — written and oral — and you should be aware of them at all times.
They do not get their points over. Only by taking the time to plan what you are doing are you likely to take account of all the necessary considerations.
One approach to this is known as PASS and it highlights four keys elements to consider in planning. These are very important skills in business. Any form of action is generally better for being carefully planned and communications are no different in this respect. As you work through this unit. Why does this happen? The most common reason is lack of planning. You might say that it is nerves in making a speech of some sort. Organising the message itself in order to facilitate understanding is based on the structure of the communication.
We start by considering planning. The same thing very often happens in examinations when.. There are a number of devices that can be used to aid this process and you need to be familiar with these in order to structure your own letters.
PASS stands for: In any form of communication. You will note. Thin back to the discussion of this in the first unit of the course. Style we shall examine in the final section of the unit. The Importance of the Audience In planning any form of communication — whether it is written or oral — it is essential to start from an understanding of the communication process itself.
In external markets you may be trying to raise awareness in the media. Whatever is said or written must. The Importance of Purpose The basic of all organisation and planning is clear identification of the aims and objectives you are trying to achieve.
It is very easy. There is a further benefit of being clear about your purpose in that you should be able not to get bogged down in detail. By identifying the purpose or objective of your communication it will immediately focus your mind on what you have to communicate. This indicates the importance attached to them. To make sense of it.
Where do these come from? There are many reasons why you might communicate in business. Note that. We can summarise the above points as follows. If he or she is a valued client. To notify colleagues about new staff joining your department you may call a meeting or write a memo.
If you are writing to follow professional who will understand technical terms. Style and tone If the intended reader is your superior. To communicate a piece or research. Unless you are writing a circular or standard letter or notice which will be read by a wide range of people. The form of communication For internal communications the position of the person you are communicating with and how well you know them will determine the style of communication you adopt in terms of the details.
Vocabulary Try to match your vocabulary to the reader. As a general principle. In order to tell a colleague that will not be available for lunch for another hour. The Importance of Structure Virtually all communications can be structured along the same overall lines — they need to have a beginning.
Avoid complex and technical terms which may not be understood. Understanding these issues can influence communication in a number of ways.
It is also important to be aware of your relationship with the audience — how long have you known the person to whom you are writing. Be aware in particular of the nature of your reader.
In contrast. You should. This is most important in respect of presentations of substance — whether a letter. The flesh on the bones is provided by the evidence and exemplification you use to support and develop the key points.
For any bur the shortest communication. Within the body of the communication. Acquiring And Organising Information Communication is concerned with manipulating information — words and numbers which you wish to communicate to someone else are first of all acquired.
This will give you the key points around which the information needs to be structured. This is necessary to take the reader or listener through what you have to say.
Note that this holds true even for the shortest telephone call or memo. Setting out deliberately to research a topic involves two key elements: You would need to research the background to the problem — at the very least.
Her we shall consider the process of acquiring information in the first place and organizing it in the context of what you need to communicate. From there.
It may be done in your head. Think about the process if writing a letter to customer who has complained about the quality of goods. You need to be clear about which are the most appropriate and how to access them.
The range of sources So having established a need. Remember that the information you need is not just any old information — you need the right information for the task or objective you want to achieve. Where do you get your information from? Suppose you are asked to write a short report on the development of computers. This distinction has important implications for the way in which information may be gathered — in order to acquire information.
You might have included such things as: The better we do those things. The list of individual sources is likely to be endless. Maintaining the focus on the overall purpose will ensure that relevance becomes the driving force behind the identification of appropriate sources and the gathering of information from them. Take a minute to writ down as many sources of information about the subject that you can think of. We could characterize these sorts of responses as being about achieving certain objectives.
Being specific In terms of identifying exactly what source are relevant. In many situations you can find yourself having to identify information for yourself — at work. This has particular significance in academic study.
Even where you are provide with a number of source to refer to it may be unclear which to go to first. We could characterize the approach to asking people in terms of the likelihood of them being able to provide the assistance you need.
You can narrow it down later if you need to. You will find that there are always people willing to help — to share their knowledge with you and to support you. This time. Having done this. Types of sources Lastly. The first thing you must do is try to be fairly specific about what information you need — start from your definition of needs and specify the subject of your research in a fairly broad way.
This second alternative — involving. This is entirely wrong! Seeking assistance is a positive step which builds on your identification of needs. Depending on the nature of the task facing you. In this case. Written material are produced in a huge variety forms and settings. It is very often the case that you need to consult primary sources in order to be sure that the information gathered is correct.
In analyzing the impact of redundancy on worker. In reviewing a customer complaint. On virtually any subject you care to name. These can often have great significance. This is clear enough when conducting.
In analyzing the development of a particular company policy. Secondary sources are important in that they can provide quick and easy way into a subject.
There are books. Even on a taught course. Written sources of information exist about virtually every subject under the sun and they are the basis for most of the information we need. The same may be used for many other written sources of information. Consulting Documents Reading is central to the development of our knowledge and understanding. It is often the case that this is all that is necessary for a particular piece of research — just the essence of the original ideas may provide the underpinning knowledge that is needed.
Most text books do this.
We do not need to go into the detail of this. Seeing what is available There are basically four options in starting to research written sources. These may either be written records and reports. The basis of this is the index system used — the Dewey Decimal System. You can make the search more specific by specifying a further search criteria within the first — for example. How can we make sense of this and channel our time and effort most efficiently into gathering the information we need?
They are designed to help you access the thing you want. This may be alright if you have a really good bookshop you can get no. You simply type in the topic you wish to find information on — for example. We shall say a bit more about libraries below.
You should always work from the general to the specific — building up the general picture before concentrating on the detail. Even if you are not a registered student at a particular institution. As we noted previously. It is likely that there will be some form of index system which will help you establish the particular files to examine. Access to the Internet is becoming increasingly widespread.
Using libraries Libraries are extremely well-organised places. But how do you check quickly that the publication does in fact meet them? There are a number of ways. They can also help to extend the search for what you want beyond the confines of the particular library. The sorts of things we would consider include: You can search this index according to: In the case of the study skills exercise.
The above list. Particularly if you have a choice. You clearly need to determine if the publication is going to provide the right information for your task. Checking relevance Having tracked down likely sources of information. We have also discounted how big the book is — there is always a tendency to favour something that looks as if it contains the right information in a smaller form.
All libraries have a comprehensive index of all the publications they contain. We have assumed. You may identify other criteria. You can always ask for assistance at libraries — librarians should know more than anyone else about what is in the library or at least how to find out and where everything is located.
Use the contents listing and index to select the most relevant sections on which to concentrate. Approaches to effective reading Time is the ever present enemy to reading. There are a number of approaches to this. You can try these approaches the next time you visit a library. Concentrate on reading — this may seem obvious. So check bibliographies or other references to further reading. Once you have identified the publication s which contain information you need in the form that you want it.
Checking the suitability of source material in this way allows you to concentrate your time on studying relevant information. The main characteristic of those sources of information is the opportunity presented for interaction in the communication process. The main advantage of such planned events is that they can be structured by the organizer or presenter in a way which facilitates the exchange of information.
Remembering that we are concerned with acquiring information in respect of achieving certain objectives or undertaking certain tasks. Do not be put off by the approaches suggested by other people if you are happy with your own.
It involves primarily. They include situations set up by you. Examples included lectures and seminars. These include lectures. They are nearly always accessible and there is a huge range of them about most subjects. This categorization has a number of implications for the method of enquiry appropriate to eliciting information. This may vary from other individuals to groups. It is. If it works for you — use it. A potential problem with events arranged by others is that they do not necessarily occur at the time that you want the information-they may be before you perceive may relevance to the Consulting People Written sources for research — books.
As such. Note taking is covered in more detail below. We can be involved in a dialogue — asking questions to fill gaps in our understanding and to test interpretations of the information received. The range of sources When we listed the various sources of information available in researching the topic of the development of computers.
As a participant. These events are specifically planned. People have all sorts of different approaches to reading — from very wide ranging and exhaustive too highly selective and specific to a particular topic. These include committee meetings or operational procedures and working practices.
This does not make them less valuable as sources of information. The essential enquiry method is observation and listening. This allows a detached. By becoming a member of the group being studied. A feature of such situations is that you are able to plan and structure your own involvement prior to the event. These are. These types of situations may.
You may also need to obtain approval for attending. You ma be able to record TV or radio programmes. Observation This is essentially concerned with watching what other people are doing-how they operate a machine.
You also need to be prepared for the other person or persons not to be helpful. You cannot control. We could include here such interactions as telephone call.
You might also wish to study the procedures used in a different department or another organization and even attend meetings elsewhere to gain information about the way in which these work. In carrying out the observation itself. Structured interviews are those where the interviewee is take through a predetermined list of questions. We shall look at this in some detail later in the course.
It demands preparation and planning. This puts a premium on the skill of effective listening. Listening If you are going to get the most out of a situation where information is imparted by the spoken word. Interviews may be thought of as being structured or unstructured: People may be interviewed alone or in groups.
We shall examine interviewing and questioning in more detail later in the course. Asking questions With all other methods of enquiry. Unstructured interviews are where there is no pre-determined order. Note taking and sources of information It is easy to see the value of note taking in terms of enabling recall or retrieval of information. Whilst this is undoubtedly true. This is that: The way in which you interpret and record information in taking notes can. It is usual for questionnaires to constrain answers to a number of choices to simplify dealing with responses.
You are selective about what you record. This is a key aspect of developing understanding. When you make notes. As with all other methods of enquiry. This is easy to see in respect of listening and observation where it may be part of the interaction-as in there being some time allocated at the end of a presentation for questions. Note Taking The main reason for note taking is often assumed to be provide a written record of spoken presentation or even which can be referred to at a later date to aid recall.
It has a value in relation to any source of information. You should then. This is particularly true in respect of written enquiry. You need to be able to get the information down as it is presented. It is not always easy to make effective notes in discussion groups. Records of an event are often formally produced in the form of reports and minutes.
This means you have to try to pick out key points as things are going on. The way in which discussion can flow within such interaction also means that key points can be difficult to identify. Examples include casual encounters which result in acquiring information unexpectedly. These should be recorded as quotes so that. You need to concentrate. A good group leader or chairperson will attempt to structure the flow to keep discussion focused and order.
You need to identify the key point that is buried in there somewhere and record that. These can also be used to help in your recording of the event. It is often the case that paragraphs only contain one real point and the rest is padding — or as authors would say.
You may also want to pick out certain phrases or sentences that the author uses as being particularly significant or apt. At times. You may want to check the official record against yours. In such situations it is important to make notes as soon after the event as possible. It is surprising how much we forget in a short space of time. You have to find the time to make your notes as well as be involved as a speaker.
Many situations — for example. There is no right or wrong way. Note taking techniques Everyone has their own individual styles of note taking. A number of different methods of doing this are considered below.
Structure your note taking around the key points in a way which brings out the connections between all the different points. Some prefer to make notes after the event. Particular points may be linked by arrows or brackets. This helps understanding and ensures that. Use abbreviations — commons ones or your own system.
Other parts of country had suffered as a result c. Translate into your own words as much as possible. You should always keep in mind that each of these models has both their advantages and disadvantages. While some communication models try to break down the whole process in order to make it easier to understand, they are not always as simple as they seem.
There are several complexities involved in communications models. This is one thing that needs to be carefully understood in the process of understanding how these models work. The Communication Process Schramm's Model: Schramm on the other hand, emphasized in that both the sender and the receiver take turns playing the role of the encoder and the decoder when it comes to communication.
The following diagram illustrates the model proposed by Schramm. The sender is the person who transmits a message. He is the communicator and is one who gets the entire process of communication started.
He wants to get his opinions, ideas, facts, thoughts or information to the receiver. A message is the actual information that has to be conveyed. Communication is unthinkable without a message. Message can broadly divided into verbal and non-verbal. The message must be clear, complete, unambiguous and courteous. The process of converting thoughts into suitable words, charts, symbols or any other forms in which they can be understood by the receiver is called encoding.
The communication is achieved through a channel. This channel can be vocal, Page 3. The person who receives the message, decodes it and understand it or attaches some meaning to it is receiver. The process of understanding the message of the sender by receiver in any channels.
The return of communication from the receiver to the sender is known as feedback. Principle of understanding the receiver: The communication must crate proper understanding in the mind of the receiver.
Thus according to Killian, communication with an awareness of the total physical and human setting in which the information will be received. Picture the place of work; determine the receptivity and understanding levels of the receivers; be aware of social climate and customs; question the informations timeliness.
Ask what, when and in what manner you would like to be communicated with if you were in the similar environment and position. Principle of consistency: The message should not be conflicting with previous communications. It should not crate confusion and chaos in the organization. Principles of effective communication 1. Principle of clarity: The message must be as clear as possible.
No ambiguity should creep into it. The message can be conveyed properly only if it has been clearly formulated in the mind of the communicator. Principle of objective: The objective may be to obtain information, give information, initiate action, and change another persons attitude and so on. If the purpose of communication is clear it will help in the choice of mode of communication.
Principle of completeness: Inadequate communication delayed action, poor public relations affects the efficiency of the parties to communication. Principle of feedback: Since the receiver is to accept and carry out the instructions, his reactions must be known to the sender of message.
The latter must consider the suggestion and criticism of the receiver of information. But feedback principle is often given a back seat by most managers, which defeats the very purpose of communication. Principle of time: The communicator must consider the timing of communication so that the desired response is created in the minds of the receivers.
Different channels have different effects and serve in different stages of the diffusion process. Capability of Audience: Communication must take into account the capability of the audience. Communications are most effective when they require the least effort on the part of the recipient. Communication starts with a climate of belief. This is built by performance on the part of the source. The receiver must have confidence in the sender.
He must have a high regard for the source's competence on the subject. A communication programme must square with the realities of its environment. The context must provide for participation and play back. The context must confirm not contradict the message. The message must have meaning for the receiver and it must be compatible with his value system.
It must have relevance to him. In general, people select those items of information which promise them generates rewards. The message must be put in simple terms. Words must mean the same thing to the receiver as they do to the sender. The farther a message has to travel, the simple it must be. An institution must speak with one voice, not many voices. Continuity and Consistency: Communication is an unending process.
It requires repetition to achieve penetration. The story must be consistent. Established channels of communication should be used channels which the receiver uses and respects. Creating Prof Amit Kumar amit gmail. Meaning and objective of Business communication, Forms of Communication, Communication model and process, Principles of Effective Communication.
Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Little is understood about the Page 1 Meaning of communication The word communication is derived from the Latin word communico which means To share. This channel can be vocal, Page 3 Prof Amit Kumar amit gmail.
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