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The latter only applies to array names: variables declared with subscripts int A. However, arrays created by dynamic allocation are accessed by pointers rather than true array variables, so they suffer from the same sizeof issues as array pointers. Thus, despite this apparent equivalence between array and pointer variables, there is still a distinction to be made between them.
Even though the name of an array is, in most expression contexts, converted into a pointer to its first element , this pointer does not itself occupy any storage; the array name is not an l-value , and its address is a constant, unlike a pointer variable.
Consequently, what an array "points to" cannot be changed, and it is impossible to assign a new address to an array name. Array contents may be copied, however, by using the memcpy function, or by accessing the individual elements. Memory management[ edit ] One of the most important functions of a programming language is to provide facilities for managing memory and the objects that are stored in memory.
C provides three distinct ways to allocate memory for objects:  Static memory allocation : space for the object is provided in the binary at compile-time; these objects have an extent or lifetime as long as the binary which contains them is loaded into memory.
Automatic memory allocation : temporary objects can be stored on the stack , and this space is automatically freed and reusable after the block in which they are declared is exited.
Dynamic memory allocation : blocks of memory of arbitrary size can be requested at run-time using library functions such as malloc from a region of memory called the heap ; these blocks persist until subsequently freed for reuse by calling the library function realloc or free These three approaches are appropriate in different situations and have various trade-offs.
For example, static memory allocation has little allocation overhead, automatic allocation may involve slightly more overhead, and dynamic memory allocation can potentially have a great deal of overhead for both allocation and deallocation. The persistent nature of static objects is useful for maintaining state information across function calls, automatic allocation is easy to use but stack space is typically much more limited and transient than either static memory or heap space, and dynamic memory allocation allows convenient allocation of objects whose size is known only at run-time.
Most C programs make extensive use of all three. Where possible, automatic or static allocation is usually simplest because the storage is managed by the compiler, freeing the programmer of the potentially error-prone chore of manually allocating and releasing storage. However, many data structures can change in size at runtime, and since static allocations and automatic allocations before C99 must have a fixed size at compile-time, there are many situations in which dynamic allocation is necessary.
See the article on malloc for an example of dynamically allocated arrays. Unlike automatic allocation, which can fail at run time with uncontrolled consequences, the dynamic allocation functions return an indication in the form of a null pointer value when the required storage cannot be allocated. Static allocation that is too large is usually detected by the linker or loader , before the program can even begin execution.
Unless otherwise specified, static objects contain zero or null pointer values upon program startup. Automatically and dynamically allocated objects are initialized only if an initial value is explicitly specified; otherwise they initially have indeterminate values typically, whatever bit pattern happens to be present in the storage , which might not even represent a valid value for that type. If the program attempts to access an uninitialized value, the results are undefined.
Many modern compilers try to detect and warn about this problem, but both false positives and false negatives can occur. Another issue is that heap memory allocation has to be synchronized with its actual usage in any program in order for it to be reused as much as possible.
For example, if the only pointer to a heap memory allocation goes out of scope or has its value overwritten before free is called, then that memory cannot be recovered for later reuse and is essentially lost to the program, a phenomenon known as a memory leak.