IELTS Writing Task 2 Common Topics. 38 Pages Best Practice Book for IELTS Writing IELTS Writing Samples Cambridge IELTS mtn-i.info - mtn-i.info Below are sample IELTS essay questions and topics reported by IELTS students in writing task 2. The essay questions have been reworded and are. IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 Activity – teacher's notes These instructions appear on each Academic Writing Question Paper and candidates need to follow .
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mtn-i.info / Call Jonathan at IELTS Writing Writing Task 2 Essays (for both Academic and General Training). 1. Advantages and. Master IELTS Essays. Academic and General Training Writing Task 2. By Ebrahim Tahassoni. Cambridge CELTA (Pass B), Sussex Downs CertTESOL ( Merit). General Training Writing Task 2 Shopping. WRITING TASK 2. You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Shopping is.
Most of the litter seen on streets is fast food packaging. Recycling and Other Solutions Companies should make goods that last longer. They should not use so much packaging. Governments should be stricter about waste produced by companies. They should put legal limits on packaging. Consumers should avoid downloading over-packaged products.
We should recycle and reuse useful materials. Households can use several rubbish bins to separate waste. Recycling saves energy and raw materials.
Nuclear Power: Positives There are several benefits to building more nuclear power stations. Nuclear power is a relatively sustainable energy source. It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources. It could replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas. Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations. They could help to reduce carbon emissions that cause global warming. The risks of accidents are being reduced.
Negatives Opponents of nuclear power worry about the safety of power stations. The building of new nuclear power stations is unpopular. Nobody wants to live near one. Nuclear waste disposal is a significant problem. There is currently no way to decontaminate radioactive material. People worry that terrorists could steal radioactive materials. It is safer to produce energy from solar, wind or water power. We tend to live in small nuclear families rather than large extended families.
Parents tend to have fewer children. Young children are no longer expected to work. Nowadays both parents often work. It costs so much to bring children up. It is more difficult to raise a large family. Parents spend less time with their children. Women traditionally stayed at home to cook, clean and look after children. Nowadays both parents often work full time. Children may be left alone, or with nannies or babysitters.
Busy parents have less contact with their children. Many families no longer eat meals together. Children spend more time with friends or surfing the Internet. Negative Effects on Children The lack of closeness in families can have a negative effect on children.
Many parents have no idea how their children spend their time. Teenagers are influenced by peer pressure. Some of them join gangs. Juvenile delinquency is on the increase. Young people need positive role models. It was considered to be embarrassing for a family. People stayed together for religious or family reasons.
Divorce is more socially acceptable nowadays. It has become much more common. Divorce can be extremely stressful. Lone parents may face financial difficulties. Many single parents have to rely on benefits paid by the state. Divorce can have a negative effect on children. Children from single-parent families are more likely to get lower grades or drop out of school.
The rise in divorce rates may be connected to some social problems. Care for Old People Caring for elderly people was traditionally the responsibility of families. Adults had to look after their elderly parents. Nowadays, fewer elderly people are looked after by their relatives. Residential homes provide care for large numbers of elderly people. Some families are unable to look after elderly relatives. Families tend to be smaller these days, and women often have full-time jobs. Care homes provide a professional service for senior citizens.
Nurses are better trained than family members. Care for Old People: Opinion The best form of care for the elderly depends on the family situation. It depends on whether family members have the time and resources. We all have a responsibility towards the older people in our society. Governments should invest money in facilities and training for care workers. Males and females should be accepted onto courses according to their abilities.
It is wrong to discriminate against students because of their gender. Gender should be irrelevant in education. In the UK, there are similar numbers of male and female students in higher education.
Gender and Work Men and women should have access to the same professional opportunities. Both men and women should be able to pursue a career. They should earn equal salaries. They should be employed according to their abilities, qualifications and experience. Traditionally, women have been restricted to certain roles. They were often employed as secretaries or receptionists. Nowadays, a range of occupations is available to both sexes.
Career success depends on individual merit. She should stay at home and bring up her children. The father should be the breadwinner of the family. Others believe that both parents should share these responsibilities. Working women can take maternity leave during and after pregnancy. Many mothers continue to work after this period. Many fathers and mothers share their parenting and domestic responsibilities.
They contribute equally to childcare, cooking and cleaning. Some women may have better career prospects than their husbands. Traditional gender roles are gradually changing. Families can divide roles and responsibilities in the most convenient way. It is used to produce crops that are more resistant to insects and diseases. Some genetically modified crops grow more quickly. Some drugs and vaccines are produced by genetic engineering.
Scientists may use genetic engineering to cure diseases. Inherited illnesses would no longer exist. Genes could be changed before a baby is born. It could also be possible to clone human organs. We could all have replacement body parts. Humans could live longer, healthier lives. Negatives of Genetic Engineering There are ethical concerns about human genetic engineering.
This would be unnatural. It would be unacceptable in most religions. Soldiers could be cloned from the genes of the strongest people. Clones might be used like robots to do certain jobs. Clones might even be developed just for organ replacements. Society and human evolution would change completely. Currently, human genetic engineering is prohibited. Advantages Farmers can produce crops that grow bigger and faster. Some GM crops are more resistant to disease or insects. This could be important for food production in developing countries.
Faster growing cereals, fruit and vegetables will mean more profit. GM foods can be modified to look perfect. They may be more attractive to customers. Genetically-Modified GM Foods: Disadvantages There may be risks involved in the genetic engineering of foods.
GM crops might change whole ecosystems. Food chains could be broken if crops are resistant to predators. Organic foods are produced without chemicals or genetic modification.
Organic farming may be slower and more expensive. However, the environment is not damaged by fertilisers or pesticides. Standards of healthcare and education are low. Life expectancy is usually lower than in developed countries. There is a lack of infrastructure, employment and good quality housing. Many people are forced to live in poverty. Food, drinking water and basic medicines are in short supply. How to Help Developing Countries The best form of help for developing countries is development aid.
Richer nations can help by investing in long-term projects. Globalisation may also help developing countries. Multi-national companies are creating jobs in developing countries. On the other hand, many people emigrate to find work in richer countries. They often send money back home to their families. This money helps to improve the standard of living in developing countries. Immigration Some people move to another country in search of a better life.
Many immigrants come from less developed countries. Richer, industrialised countries may offer opportunities for employment. Free healthcare and schooling are available in some developed countries. Other people migrate to a foreign country to improve their academic qualifications.
Positives of Immigration and Multi-Cultural Societies From an economic perspective, immigration can be extremely positive. Many immigrants have skills that are needed in the country they move to.
Immigrants who find work contribute to the economy of their new country. Many immigrants send money home to help family members. Immigration also creates cultural diversity. People of many different nationalities learn to live together.
This can help people to become more open-minded and tolerant. Negatives of Immigration Some people believe that immigrants take jobs that should go to local people. Some immigrant workers work longer hours for less money. Companies might pay lower salaries to immigrant workers. Unemployment rates could rise if there are too many immigrants.
Opinions about Immigration Immigration can help the economy of a country. However, immigration needs to be controlled. In many countries, immigrants need visas or work permits.
Governments should stop companies from exploiting immigrant workers. Foreign and local workers should have the right to equal pay and conditions. Positives of Globalisation Business is becoming increasingly international. Multi-national companies do business across the world.
Goods are produced in one country and sold in many others.
A global economy means free trade between countries. This can strengthen political relationships. Globalisation can also create opportunities for employment. It encourages investment in less developed countries. It could reduce poverty in the developing world. Negatives of Globalisation Globalisation is not always beneficial to everyone. Companies can move to countries where labour is cheap.
This creates redundancies, or job losses. Employees cannot be confident that they have stable jobs. Companies sometimes exploit their employees in developing countries. Global trade creates more waste and pollution. The Future of Globalisation There should be global regulations for salaries and working conditions. Governments should impose laws to protect the environment. They support people who are living in poverty or unable to work.
Governments raise money by taxing working people. They can spend money on resources and campaigns. They can introduce new laws. They can impose taxes. They can create jobs. They can regulate the activities of companies such as banks. They can provide resources for schools. They are also responsible for the security and well-being of their citizens. They control armed forces and police forces. Public Services Governments pay the salaries of public sector workers like police officers and teachers.
Free education and healthcare may be provided by the state.
Some governments control public transport systems and even TV channels. In other countries, these services are provided by private companies. Some people believe that competition between private companies is good.
It helps to improve quality while bringing prices down. Other people think that essential services should be free. Governments should pay for them. Opinion Governments can censor what the public sees or reads in the media. We should use censorship to protect children from violent images.
Some computer games involve killing people or committing crimes. The Internet also needs to be controlled. Many websites show pornography and violence. There should be age limits for websites and computer games.
Parents need to take responsibility for checking what their children watch. It is impossible for governments to control everything we see. Video cameras have been installed in many public places. They are supposed to protect us and deter criminals. Many people think that this surveillance violates our privacy.
The authorities could build databases with our pictures and identities. We should not be treated like criminals. Smart Cards: Positives Governments will probably introduce a digital identification card system. Smart cards will have benefits and drawbacks. They could help to reduce crime. They could hold personal information, such as DNA. Digital bank cards could contain fingerprint information.
It would be very difficult for criminals to use a stolen card. It would be easier for police to identify people and catch criminals. Negatives Many people are worried about losing their privacy. Governments could store all our personal and medical information. This information could be used by insurance companies. Employers could check our health records. They should have the same rights as other people. They should have access to the same jobs as other citizens.
Discrimination against disabled people is illegal in many countries. Ramps and lifts for wheelchairs should be installed in public buildings.
Support teachers can be employed to help children with learning difficulties. In some countries, people are allowed to own firearms. Individuals have the right to protect themselves.
People can use guns in self defence. This deters criminals. Why gun ownership should be illegal: There is a risk of accidents with guns.
The number of violent crimes increases when guns are available. Criminals may be armed.
The police then need to use guns. Suicide rates have been shown to rise when guns are available. Guns create violent societies with high murder rates. Why police should use guns: Many criminals use weapons. The threat of a gun can deter criminals. Police officers can force a criminal to surrender. It is easier to arrest someone and avoid physical violence.
They can protect the public. They can shoot an escaping criminal who poses a serious danger to the public. Why police should not carry guns: There is a risk of accidents and mistakes. The police might shoot an unarmed criminal or an innocent person. Accidents can happen in public places. There are several alternatives to guns e. Only special police units should use guns. Arms Trade: Positives The export of arms, or weapons, is an extremely controversial issue.
Governments of rich, industrialised countries sell arms to each other. This industry creates jobs and wealth. The trade of weapons may improve relationships between governments.
Negatives Weapons may be used in conflicts and wars. The supply of arms could be responsible for deaths. Governments are promoting war in order to make a profit. Rich countries can influence the politics of other nations. Nuclear Weapons Nuclear weapons are capable of destroying whole cities. A nuclear war between two countries would destroy both countries. Nuclear weapons are used as a deterrent.
They prevent wars from starting. Nuclear Weapons: Opinion Nuclear weapons should be prohibited. Governments should limit the production of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons cannot be used against terrorist organisations. Armed Forces: Positives Armed forces provide security and protection. They deter military attack by another country.
They can also be used to maintain peace within countries. They can be used to give the police extra support.
Soldiers are also used to help in emergency situations, such as after a natural disaster. Negatives Armies require a lot of funding from governments. Too much money is spent on weapons and military technology. This money could be spent on schools, hospitals and other public services. An unhealthy diet can cause various health problems. Obesity, diabetes and heart disease are on the increase.
Many people nowadays rely on fast food or pre-prepared meals. These foods often contain too much fat, salt and sugar. They are cheap to download and very easy to prepare. Many young people have grown up on a diet of convenience foods. Populations in developed countries are increasingly overweight. Exercise Regular exercise is essential in maintaining a healthy body.
Exercise burns calories and helps to build healthy bones and muscles. Most people nowadays lead a sedentary lifestyle. We tend to walk less and do desk jobs. Most adults relax by watching television. Children play video games rather than doing outdoor sports. In the past, people were more active in their jobs and at home.
More and more people, including young children, are seriously overweight. They are at risk of heart disease and diabetes. This situation will increase the burden on hospitals and taxpayers. Hospitals rely on the government for money and resources. Governments should promote a healthy diet and regular exercise. There should be more time for sport on school timetables. Unhealthy junk food should be banned from school menus. People need information about what foods contain.
The British Government recommends eating five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. State Health Systems: Advantages Good healthcare should be available to everyone for free. State healthcare is paid by the government using money from taxes. Everyone has access to the same quality of care and treatment. Private healthcare is unfair because only wealthy people can afford it.
Private Healthcare: Advantages State hospitals are often very large and difficult to run. Private hospitals have shorter waiting lists for operations and appointments. Patients can benefit from faster treatment. Patients have their own room and more comfortable facilities. Alternative Medicine: Positives People are increasingly using alternative medicines to treat illnesses.
For example, acupuncture can be used to treat backache. Herbal medicines can be used to treat allergies or viruses. Many patients report positive experiences with these treatments. Some traditional cures have been used for hundreds of years. Negatives Many alternative medicines have not been tested scientifically. They may have no beneficial effects at all.
They may cause unknown side effects. People should trust the opinions of qualified doctors. An illness could get worse without treatment from a doctor. Stress Modern lifestyles are increasingly stressful.
People work long hours with strict deadlines. Our busy lifestyles mean we have less time to relax. Unemployment is a major cause of stress. Tests and exams can also cause stress. How to Reduce Stress Stress can be reduced by taking regular exercise and eating a healthy diet. It is also important to get sufficient sleep and make leisure time a priority.
People should work less overtime and take regular holidays. Schools have started to employ psychologists. They can offer emotional support to students.
This helps people who cannot afford to download their own house. It can be argued that state housing creates dependence on the government. People should not rely on the government to look after them. People have no incentive to earn money and download their own home.
Council properties are often made with cheap, poor-quality materials. They should be protected. Old buildings are often considered to be works of art. They give character to cities and attract tourists. They show us how people lived in the past. We identify countries by architectural symbols like the pyramids in Egypt. Governments should spend money on looking after historic buildings. They need regular repairs and maintenance.
New buildings should be designed to complement them. They should use less energy and produce less waste. Modern insulation can make houses more energy-efficient. Solar and wind power can be used to generate electricity. Rainwater and waste water can be recycled and used to flush toilets.
It is becoming a global second language. It is the dominant language of technology, science and international business. International business meetings are regularly held in English. The most important textbooks and journals are published in English. The ability to speak English is a necessary skill in the modern world. Negatives of English as an International Language If one language is dominant, other languages may disappear.
The dominant language brings its own culture. American culture has become popular around the world. Other cultures may be damaged. As an alternative to English, a new global language could be invented. It would have no nationality or culture attached to it. This could help to promote international peace and understanding. Esperanto is an example of a language that was invented with this aim. People aspire to earn more money.
They want a bigger house or a better car. We connect wealth and material possessions with happiness and success. Advertising creates new desires and needs. It persuades us to download the latest styles. Positives of Consumerism Consumerism creates employment. It helps to reduce poverty. It encourages innovation and creativity in business. We live in a global economy. We have a better quality of life.
Negatives of Consumerism Consumerist societies create more waste. They use more natural resources. They cause damage to the environment. Advertisers tell us who we are and what we want.
Wealth does not lead to happiness. Materialism causes greed and crime. We should return to traditional values like sharing. It can be described as a feeling of pleasure or enjoyment. People enjoy spending time with family and friends.
Hobbies, sports and games can be a source of fun and enjoyment. Some people see money as a source of happiness. Other people define happiness as something deeper. In order to be truly happy it is necessary to live a good life. We need to feel that we are doing something useful with our lives. Some people get a sense of achievement from their work. Others find happiness in bringing up their children. Religion or a sense of purpose can also be a source of happiness. Success People define success in different ways.
Some people get a sense of achievement from raising a family. For others, success is defined by wealth or status. We often think of rich and famous people as being successful in life. Millionaires like Bill Gates are considered to be successful.
They have risen to the top in their chosen professions. For some, being successful means achieving personal or professional goals. They see success as the result of hard work. Success in any field requires long-term planning and effort. Nature or Nurture Some people believe that our personalities are determined mainly by genetics.
We inherit our abilities and talents from our parents. Others think that our education and upbringing are more important. Our personalities and achievements depend more on nurture than nature. Many people argue that we control our own destinies. We can shape our own personalities.
By working hard we can achieve any goal that we put our minds to. We are not limited by our genetic characteristics or upbringing. Professional sport encourages people to compete for money. Many sports stars are only concerned about money and fame. Some athletes take drugs in order to win at any cost. Competitors are often selfish and rude. They are not good role models for children. All sports should be amateur. Sports should be leisure activities rather than jobs.
People should do sporting activities for enjoyment and health reasons. Taking part is more important than winning. Arguments for Professional Sport Professional sports are the same as any other business.
Many people are employed in the sports industry. People should be able to use their talents to earn a salary. Sports stars entertain millions of people. Money is necessary to improve facilities and train athletes.
The level of professional sport is much higher than that of amateur sport. In daily life we compete to get jobs or the highest grades. Sports are a safe form of competition. Competition is healthy because it pushes us to give our best. Competitors and fans can release energy and aggression. Supporters of teams feel a sense of belonging to a community. They do not provide a vital service. Football players, for example, earn enormous salaries by simply kicking a ball.
We could all live happily without professional football. Life would be difficult without doctors, engineers and other vital professionals. Society does not seem to value these professions as highly as professional sport. Sports salaries should be compatible with the wages most people earn. Sport is a multi-million-pound industry. There is a large audience of sports fans. Sports on television attract many viewers.
Sports stars have dedicated hours of practice to developing their fitness and skills. Only the most talented among them will reach the top. A sports career may only last 10 years.
Sports fans are willing to pay to support their teams. Sport and Politics Some people think that sport and politics should remain separate. Governments are involved in the hosting of sporting events such as the Olympics.
These events attract investment and create jobs. They attract huge numbers of visitors and sports fans. Wealthy countries tend to hold these events. Developing countries should be given the chance to become hosts.
Television programmes can be entertaining and enjoyable. Viewers have access to a huge variety of entertainment channels. Television brings the best comedians, musicians and actors into our homes.
Programmes can also be informative and educational. News coverage makes the public aware of events around the world. Documentaries can make learning more interesting. Negatives of Television Television is having a negative impact on society.
Some people link violence on television with crime rates in the real world. Children copy the behaviour they see on the screen. Children are less healthy because they spend less time playing. Advertisers direct their marketing at children. Most programmes do not require much thought. Watching TV is a waste of time. Opinions about Television Television has many benefits.
However, it can be addictive. Behaviour shown on TV can influence people. Parents should choose carefully what their children watch. Children should not be exposed to violence, swearing or sexual images. TV companies should make more positive, educational programmes. Positives of the Internet There are many advantages to using the Internet. It gives us instant access to information on almost any subject.
Shops and other services are now available online. People can download goods and services from the comfort of their homes. The Internet is starting to replace other forms of entertainment. It has revolutionised communication. We can keep in touch by e-mail or instant messenger services. Video messaging is becoming common for business meetings. Negatives of the Internet Many websites contain offensive content. Some sites show violent or sexual images. Parents find it difficult to control what their children see online.
They do not always know who their children are chatting to. With so many websites it is difficult to search for good information.
Internet Compared to Newspapers and Books Newspapers and books are now published online as well as in print. We can read the news in any language from any country in the world. It costs nothing to publish or access information on the Internet.
The Internet allows anybody to publish their own writing. Newspaper articles and books are written by professionals.
People still download newspapers and books because they are portable. People do not like reading from a screen. Mobile phones have revolutionised the way we communicate. We can stay in touch with family, friends and colleagues wherever we are. Users can send text messages, surf the Internet, take photos and listen to music. Mobiles have also become fashion accessories. Negatives of Mobile Phones Mobile phones can be a problem in some public places. Ringing phones cause disturbances in cinemas and school lessons.
Some people are not aware that others can hear their conversations. Mobile phones may also interfere with electronic equipment. Their waves could cause damage to our brains. Mobile phones can also be a dangerous distraction. Mobile phones are a popular target for thieves. Opinion about Mobile Phones The benefits of mobile phones outweigh the drawbacks. We need to use these phones with care.
People go on holiday to relax and have fun. Tourists can experience different cultures. They can sunbathe on beaches or go sight-seeing. Travelling abroad opens our minds. We can learn to speak other languages. The tourist trade is vital for some economies. It creates employment in services like accommodation, transport and entertainment. Some areas rely on tourism for their income. Nigeria - General Training Many people think that more money will make them happier.
How important is money for happiness? Nigeria - General Training April Some people say it is manufactures and supermarkets responsibility to reduce the amount of packaging of products they sell and others say it is the consumers responsibility to avoid downloading products with too much packaging.
Discuss both views and give your opinion. India These days, many people have their own computer and telephone, so it is quite easy for them to do their job at home. Does working at home have more advantages or more disadvantages? Is this a positive or negative development? Some people say that parents should places restrictions on the hours their children spend watching TV and playing computer games, and encourage them to spend this time reading books instead. Some people believe that all teenagers should have to do unpaid work during their free time in order to help the local community.
They think this would benefit the teenagers doing the unpaid work but also society as a whole. Some countries are struggling with an increase in the rate of crime. Many people think that having more police on the streets is the only way to reduce these increasing levels of crime. To what extent to you agree or disagree? Azerbaijan Some people think parents should supervise their children's activities closely, while others believe children should have more freedom.
Azerbaijan More and more people are becoming seriously overweight. Some people say that increasing the price of fattening foods will solve this problem. To what extend do you agree or disagree? Today, many people do not realise how important the natural world is.
How can people learn more about the importance of the natural world? However, others disagree with this. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. In many countries, weddings are getting bigger and more expensive than the past.
India - General Training Some believe that it is the responsibility of people to take care of the environment. Others say it is the government that should take care of the environment. Kuwait - General Training March Some people believe that the increasing number of vehicles is one of the biggest problem facing cities, while others believe that cities have bigger challenges. Discuss both views and state your opinion. Nigeria Some people think that men are naturally more competitive than women.
These days, mobile phones and the internet are very important to the ways in which people relate to one another socially. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages? Scientists believe that in order to protect the environment, people must use less energy in their daily lives.
However, most people have not changed the way they live. Why do you think many people have not taken individual action? What could be done to encourage them to take action?
Films and computer games which contain violence are very popular. Some people believe they have a negative effect on society and so should be banned. Other people, however, say they are just harmless and help people to relax. Discuss both these points of view and give your own opinion. Many doctors say that people in today's world do not do enough physical exercise. What do you think are the causes of this? What solutions are there to this problem?
Iran - General Training Some people think that higher institutions should concentration more on academic subjects such as history and the physical sciences, while others think that they should concentrate more on practical subjects such as car mechanics and cookery, etc. Discuss both views and give your own opinion General Training In many countries, the rich are becoming richer and poor are becoming poorer.
Why is this a problem? What solutions are there to tackle this problem?