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[et. al].—2nd ed. 1 online resource. Includes index. Description based on print version record and CIP data provided by publisher; resource not viewed. ISBN. Introduction to Networking Basics ISBN The 2nd edition of Wiley Pathways Networking Basics addresses diversity and the. Introduction to Networking Basics 2nd Edition by Patrick Ciccarelli and Publisher Wiley. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN.
The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers.
These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce.
Repeaters and hubs[ edit ] A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signal , cleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it. The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than meters.
With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart. A repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e.
Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern switches. Bridges[ edit ] A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer layer 2 of the OSI model to form a single network. This breaks the network's collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain. Network segmentation breaks down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks.
Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers. Switches[ edit ] A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams frames between ports based on the destination MAC address in each frame. It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge.
If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source. Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches. Routers[ edit ] A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram Internet protocol information from layer 3.
The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table or forwarding table. A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets. A destination in a routing table can include a "null" interface, also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i. Modems[ edit ] Modems MOdulator-DEModulator are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless.
To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission. Modems are commonly used for telephone lines, using a digital subscriber line technology. Firewalls[ edit ] A firewall is a network device for controlling network security and access rules. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.
The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in cyber attacks. Message flows A-B in the presence of a router R , red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
A communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network. In a protocol stack also see the OSI model , each protocol leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware which sends information across the media. The use of protocol layering is today ubiquitous across the field of computer networking. Using an open-ended format and sometimes based on web sources, they encourage students to draw conclusions using chapter material applied to real-world situations, which fosters both mastery and independent learning.
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Networking Fundamentals 1 2. Network Standards and Models 35 3. Network Protocols 67 4. Network Architectures 97 5. Network Topologies 6. Network Media and Devices 7.
Network Servers and Services Fundamentals 9. Enterprise Networking Services Wireless, Remote, and Wide Area Networking Network Security For additional questions and to assess you current knowledge of networking fundamentals, go to www. Identify communication components 1.
Understand the differences in 1. Recognize the trends that are changing the way businesses and organizations use networking technologies. Now, not only have networks become fundamental network concepts, including thethe rule for business, home networks have also basic components of a network, the roles thatbecome common. In short, networks, different network devices play, and the two pri-which consist of computers connected together mary network models in use today.
The chapter then turns to ausers to share resources. In a traditional mainframe computer envi-can communicate with ronment, like the one shown in Figure , dumb terminals connect to aeach other. Dumb Terminal A PC network is similar in that the computers are electronically con-A dumb terminal is nected. Most networks have one or more specialized computers, calledeffectively a screen, a servers that act somewhat like the central mainframe. The biggest differencekeyboard, and a box having is that PCs are smart terminals that have their own processing and memory.
Mainframe computers brought computers from the realm ofcontrol occurring at government-only to businesses, though only the biggest business couldthe mainframe. Server The introduction of the PC resulted in a revolution in how businesses,A server is a computer that and eventually homes, operated.
The PC brought computers to small busi-stores and provides ness and to the individual user. However, information technology IT pro-resources, data, and fessionals coming from a mainframe background saw some fundamentalservices to the network. They also saw them as a potential security risk, because anyone who has physical access to the computer has access to its data. Section 1. Modern Cloud computing is similarto the old mainframe and dumb terminals used prior to PC networking.
The term Cloud comes from the symbol used in network diagramsto represent the Internet. They provided for shared storage, and in most cases centralized storage, enabling information sharing.
Most also had centralized security as a way to limit access to authorized personnel only. Primary among these shared resources is shared data, making sharing information and working together easy for network users. Another shared resource that has become more important in recent years, and is often the primary reason for home networks, is sharing a high-speed Internet connection. Figure A sample network. Most businessesmechanisms would be lost without e-mail, and in many cases e-mail is implemented internally as a network resource.
Most operating systems also have utilitiesAuthentication mechanisms to enable remote troubleshooting and even remote control of computers. Most networks rely on usernames andthe network. Not only does security control who can access the computer, it also lets you manage what a user can do after he or she connects to the network. Network administrator 1.
Sharingthe upkeep and support of information can be a dangerous thing, if it gets to the wrong person. Personal information in the wrong hands can lead to identityWired networks theft. If you are going to have a network, you have to protect it. Wired networks consist ofPCs and servers, which are Maintenance and support are also concerns. Networks require ongoingphysically connected by support and regular maintenance, which includes both network hardwarecables. That brings us right back around to security.
The security tools avail- able depend on the type of network.
Part of network maintenance includes reviewing and maintaining security. Wired networks have different issues than wireless networks. Different network models and different network- ing products have different ways of implementing security. Knowing what is available and what is applicable to your situation is critical so you can put it to use. A case could be made that the Internet is one of the most important develop- ments in the history of both information systems and communication systems.
It has also been a breeding ground for the design and development of new information and communication technologies, with many PC net- work innovations tracing their roots directly to the Internet. In the U. By , the U. Internet joined to its Canadian equivalent and supported approximately 11, servers. That number grew to nearly , servers by the end of In the early s, most of the individual country networks were linked together into one worldwide network of networks.
By the end of , more than 1 million servers were on the Internet. That changed in the early s, allowing commercial networks to begin offer- ing commercial online services. Commercial growth quickly overshad- owed the traditional government, university, and research use of the Internet.
In , the U. No one knows exactly how large the Internet has become, but estimates suggest more than million computers and 1 billion people are on the Internet. That system had a total of two to the power of 32, or four billion two hundred ninety-four million nine hundred sixty-seven thou- sand two hundred ninety-six 4,,, , addresses. We are now moving to the IPv6 addressing system, which has two to the th power or the equivalent of enough addresses for almost every grain of sand on the earth.
How are PC networks similar to older mainframe networks? How are they different? Why is security for PC networks a concern? What are some of the access control methods used to protect networked information?
Apply Your Knowledge How would you use biometrics to improve security of a computer network? Project 1.
These models provide common terms for describing network operations and ways of describing and comparing network components. Complete Project 1. This project reviews common networking terms and terms relating to standards.
A net- work connects computers, but can also connect other devices such as shared printers, removable media drives, scanners, and other equipment.
In order to understand networks and how they work, you need to start with the basics. Node 1. Networks enable people to share resources, including printers, hard disks, and applications, which can greatly reduce the costs of providing these resources to each person in a company.
Networks are built around this idea, connecting shared sources resources to their consumers. Several terms are used to describe these network devices, including hosts, nodes, workstations, peers, servers, and clients. Any device capable of communi- cating on the network is also referred to generically as a node. Network system 1. Fiber-optic Section 1. In addition, servers and clients also need special-purpose network laser signals. Network adapter The server stores data and software that the clients can access.
You canA network adapter is the have several servers working together over the network with client computershardware that enables a to support the business application. It provides usersnetwork.
Most modern client computers are designed to supportanother name for a the dual roles of both client and server, sharing resources to the networknetwork adapter. There are also devices in the circuit that performsignal strength and format. Hub 1. In this network, messages move through the hub to andSwitch from the computers. All computers share the same circuit and take turnsA connection device sending messages.
In the case of a wireless network, the network adaptercontrol and manage data sends and receives radio frequency messages, not that different from atransmissions. The network adapter also determines the low- level protocol used by the computer to communicate on the network. Net-Router work adapters running on one protocol cannot communicate with networkA router is a device that adapters running on a different protocol. High-level protocols, implementedconnects two or more and managed through software, control functions such as how computersnetworks.
We discuss protocols more in Section 1.
In older networks, hubs are used as central points where the cables leading out to network PCs come together. A hub is simply a connection point that does not provide any sophisticated control. In current networks, you are more likely to see a switch rather than a hub.
From the outside, both look much the same, but a switch is a more sophisticated communication device that helps control and manage the data passing between the PCs. Figure also shows a router. The router enables computers on one network to communicate with computers on other networks, but at the same 10 Chapter 1: Networking Fundamentals Figure To other networks e.
A connection device that isused to connect networks time provide a level of isolation between the networks. Routers are a keyand devices that would not part of the Internet, which is, at its core, a massive set of interconnectedotherwise be able to networks.
A gateway is used to connect dissimilar networks and devices. Bridge Like routers, bridges connect a network to other networks. Bridges doA device used to connect not provide the same level of isolation as routers, but can be used in sometwo or more physical situations where routers cannot be used. Another device, called a brouter,networks. Brouter 1. Physically, little differentiates the two. From the information youprotocols, and non-routable have so far, the network in Figure could follow either model.
One or more computers are designated asconnects multiple PCs, servers, providing resources to the network. The rest of the computers arecalled clients, to a single clients, consuming those resources.
Clients,which distributes data and or more accurately, the user working at the client, must be authenticated andresources to the network. You can also control the resources to which the user has access, as well as the level of access.