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DOI: Killgrove, K.
Jackson, Jr. Oxford University Press. Biohistory of the Roman Republic: the potential of isotope analysis of human skeletal remains. Food for Rome: a stable isotope investigation of diet in the Imperial period 1st-3rd centuries AD. Eckardt ed. Response to C.
Human Osteology Laboratory Workbook. Lulu Press. Online content for StudySpace. Boyd and J. Teaching public engagement in anthropology. In: Blogging Archaeology, D. Rocks-Macqueen and C.
Webster, eds. Blogging bioarchaeology. Society for Archaeological Sciences Bulletin 37 1 Book Reviews Killgrove, K.
Tilley and A. American Antiquity 83 2 Sulosky Weaver. American Journal of Archaeology Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 21 2 Robb and O. Baadsgaard, A. Boudin, and J. Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Stead, J. Lock and A. In November , the anonymously published popular science book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation , written by Scottish journalist Robert Chambers , widened public interest in the concept of transmutation of species.
Vestiges used evidence from the fossil record and embryology to support the claim that living things had progressed from the simple to the more complex over time.
But it proposed a linear progression rather than the branching common descent theory behind Darwin's work in progress, and it ignored adaptation. Darwin read it soon after publication, and scorned its amateurish geology and zoology,  but he carefully reviewed his own arguments after leading scientists, including Adam Sedgwick, attacked its morality and scientific errors.
While few naturalists were willing to consider transmutation, Herbert Spencer became an active proponent of Lamarckism and progressive development in the s.
Reminded of his lack of expertise in taxonomy , Darwin began an eight-year study of barnacles , becoming the leading expert on their classification. Using his theory, he discovered homologies showing that slightly changed body parts served different functions to meet new conditions, and he found an intermediate stage in the evolution of distinct sexes.
In , he completed the last part of his Beagle-related writing and began working full-time on evolution. He now realised that the branching pattern of evolutionary divergence was explained by natural selection working constantly to improve adaptation.
His thinking changed from the view that species formed in isolated populations only , as on islands, to an emphasis on speciation without isolation ; that is, he saw increasing specialisation within large stable populations as continuously exploiting new ecological niches.
He conducted empirical research focusing on difficulties with his theory. He studied the developmental and anatomical differences between different breeds of many domestic animals, became actively involved in fancy pigeon breeding, and experimented with the help of his son Francis on ways that plant seeds and animals might disperse across oceans to colonise distant islands.
By , his theory was much more sophisticated, with a mass of supporting evidence. Reasons suggested have included fear of religious persecution or social disgrace if his views were revealed, and concern about upsetting his clergymen naturalist friends or his pious wife Emma. Charles Darwin's illness caused repeated delays. His paper on Glen Roy had proved embarrassingly wrong, and he may have wanted to be sure he was correct. David Quammen has suggested all these factors may have contributed, and notes Darwin's large output of books and busy family life during that time.
Darwin always finished one book before starting another. While he was researching, he told many people about his interest in transmutation without causing outrage. He firmly intended to publish, but it was not until September that he could work on it full-time. His estimate that writing his "big book" would take five years proved optimistic.
Darwin was torn between the desire to set out a full and convincing account and the pressure to quickly produce a short paper. He met Lyell, and in correspondence with Joseph Dalton Hooker affirmed that he did not want to expose his ideas to review by an editor as would have been required to publish in an academic journal. He began a "sketch" account on 14 May , and by July had decided to produce a full technical treatise on species as his "big book" on Natural Selection.
His theory including the principle of divergence was complete by 5 September when he sent Asa Gray a brief but detailed abstract of his ideas.
It enclosed twenty pages describing an evolutionary mechanism, a response to Darwin's recent encouragement, with a request to send it on to Lyell if Darwin thought it worthwhile. The mechanism was similar to Darwin's own theory.
While Darwin considered Wallace's idea to be identical to his concept of natural selection, historians have pointed out differences. Darwin described natural selection as being analogous to the artificial selection practised by animal breeders, and emphasised competition between individuals; Wallace drew no comparison to selective breeding , and focused on ecological pressures that kept different varieties adapted to local conditions.
On 28 March Darwin wrote to Lyell asking about progress, and offering to give Murray assurances "that my Book is not more un-orthodox, than the subject makes inevitable. He bowed to Murray's objection to "abstract" in the title, though he felt it excused the lack of references, but wanted to keep "natural selection" which was "constantly used in all works on Breeding", and hoped "to retain it with Explanation, somewhat as thus",— Through Natural Selection or the preservation of favoured races.
In total, 1, copies were printed but after deducting presentation and review copies, and five for Stationers' Hall copyright, around 1, copies were available for sale. The third edition came out in , with a number of sentences rewritten or added and an introductory appendix, An Historical Sketch of the Recent Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species,  while the fourth in had further revisions.
The fifth edition, published on 10 February , incorporated more changes and for the first time included the phrase " survival of the fittest ", which had been coined by the philosopher Herbert Spencer in his Principles of Biology Darwin had told Murray of working men in Lancashire clubbing together to download the 5th edition at fifteen shillings and wanted it made more widely available; the price was halved to 7 s 6 d by printing in a smaller font.
It includes a glossary compiled by W. Book sales increased from 60 to per month.
In a May letter, Darwin mentioned a print run of 2, copies, but it is not clear if this referred to the first printing only as there were four that year. He welcomed the distinguished elderly naturalist and geologist Heinrich Georg Bronn , but the German translation published in imposed Bronn's own ideas, adding controversial themes that Darwin had deliberately omitted.
Bronn translated "favoured races" as "perfected races", and added essays on issues including the origin of life, as well as a final chapter on religious implications partly inspired by Bronn's adherence to Naturphilosophie. Darwin corresponded with Royer about a second edition published in and a third in , but he had difficulty getting her to remove her notes and was troubled by these editions.