Plant Breeding for Water-Limited Environments format: EPUB, PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices; Immediate eBook download after download. PDF | PREFACE In my previous book entitled "Plant Breeding for Stress Environments" (Blum ) plant breeding for water-limited. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Plant Breeding for Water-Limited Environments | To the same extent that the phenotyping of disease resistance requires.
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In my previous book entitled Plant Breeding for Stress Environments (Blum ) plant breeding for water-limited environments was only one chapter together. Read "Plant Breeding for Water-Limited Environments" by Abraham Blum available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. This volume will be the only existing single-authored book offering a science- based breeder's manual directed at breeding for water-limited.
This could be explained by the fact that genotypes with longer life cycles and increased plant height have more time for photo-assimilate production and have the capacity to accumulate more biomass, hence they will have high grain yield. The variation in proline content observed among different genotypes under both stressed and well-watered conditions and its accumulation under stress was in accordance with previous findings.
Rampino et al. Nio et al. Similar effects of water stress and increased PC were observed in other crops, including sugar beet Beta vulgaris Gzik, , alfalfa Medicago sativa Irigoyen et al. The weak positive and non-significant correlation observed between the proline content and stressed yield under controlled environment could suggest that, although proline plays an important role of osmoprotection, it may not be a good reflection of stressed yield levels. These findings are supported by Tardieu who argued that genes encoding desiccation tolerance may not enhance yield under agricultural drought.
The findings from this study are also reported by Marek et al. The observations do not support our hypothesis that proline can serve as an important biochemical marker or selection indices for indirect selection for stressed yield, which is of breeders' interests.
However, the presence of positive correlation between proline content and grain yield suggests that PC remains an important trait in enhancing the capacity of genotypes to optimize grain yields under drought-stress.
There is therefore a need to take advantage of such genotypes. These results provide a good practical insight and add on to previous studies that used external osmotica such as polyethylene glycol PEG , which may need to be confirmed by actual soil water deficit.
Some of the studies evaluated a small number of genotypes which needed to be increased to make meaningful conclusions and recommendations for breeding. Others determined the proline accumulation at seedling stage which needed to be confirmed by genotypic responses when exposed to water stress at critical growth stages.
The positive correlation of grain yield with proline content under drought stressed conditions observed in the present study supported these previous studies in that proline accumulation is a good indicator of drought tolerance in wheat which could be useful during genotype selection.
Proline accumulates under stress, but proline, when measured at a single time point, may not serve as a good predictor or marker for indirect selection for drought stressed yield under agricultural conditions. However, the positive correlation of grain yield and proline content found under-drought stress conditions provides already evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection.
Further studies are required to quantify proline content of diverse genotypes at different stress levels to explore the rate of proline accumulation in different genotypes during time of stress exposure and yield potential of genotypes. This could be done using a pool of well characterized drought tolerant and a contrasting set of drought susceptible genotypes.
The current study also deduced that the material evaluated contain useful genetic diversity for drought tolerance. Promising lines that are highlighted bold in Supplementary Table S3 have been selected for use in breeding for drought tolerance based on their diverse and complementary agronomic traits that could further enhance drought stressed yield.
The currently selected lines showed higher mean grain yields under drought-stress and higher stress tolerance indices than the local checks LM61 to LM70 Supplementary Table S3.
In South Africa, they will add to the germplasm pool identified by Dube et al. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Front Plant Sci v. Front Plant Sci. Published online Aug Toi J. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Edited by: Reviewed by: Tsilo az. Received Dec 16; Accepted Aug The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Table1.
DOCX K. Abstract Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat Triticum aestivum L. Introduction Wheat Triticum aestivum L. Materials and methods Plant materials and study site The study evaluated 96 diverse bread wheat genotypes consisting of 88 lines from CIMMYT's heat and drought nurseries; and 8 local checks.
Open in a separate window. Experimental design and crop establishment The 96 genotypes were evaluated using a lattice design with two replications containing six incomplete blocks with 16 genotypes each and two water regimes under stressed and non-stressed conditions.
Data collection Data on the following phenotypic traits was collected. The proline concentration was calculated using the following formula: Data analysis Phenotypic and proline data were analyzed separately following the lattice procedure of SAS 9.
Table 2 Mean squares and significant tests after combined analysis of variance for nine phenotypic traits and proline content of 96 wheat genotypes evaluated across the four test environments and two water regimes. WR 95 9. Env WR 3 WR 9. Table 3 Means for nine agronomic traits and proline content of 96 wheat genotypes and the top 15 best and five bottom performing genotypes when evaluated under stressed and non-stressed across the test environments, ranked according to their performance under stressed conditions.
Table 4 Pearson's correlation coefficients r describing association of nine phenotypic traits and proline content of 96 wheat genotypes evaluated under two greenhouse and two field experiments of stressed lower diagonal and optimal upper diagonal conditions.
Table 5 Rotated component matrix of nine phenotypic traits and proline content of 98 wheat genotypes evaluated in four test environments under stressed and optimum conditions.
Figure 1. Figure 2. Discussion Development of drought tolerant wheat genotypes is the goal of wheat breeders. Effect of genotypes and water regime on grain yield Selecting for improved grain yield under both stressed and optimum conditions allow genotypes to maintain ranks for high yields since the same genotypes will be expected to perform well in either situation. Effect of water regime on proline accumulation The variation in proline content observed among different genotypes under both stressed and well-watered conditions and its accumulation under stress was in accordance with previous findings.
Conclusion Proline accumulates under stress, but proline, when measured at a single time point, may not serve as a good predictor or marker for indirect selection for drought stressed yield under agricultural conditions. Author contributions All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.
Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Supplementary material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: References Abebe T. Tolerance of mannitol-accumulating transgenic wheat to water stress and salinity.
Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil. Plant Breeding for Water-Limited Environments. The influence of the Rht1 and Rht2 alleles on the deposition and use of stem reserves in wheat. Drought responses of leaf tissues from wheat cultivars of differing drought tolerance at the metabolite level.
Agronomic performance of alleles in a spring wheat population across a range of moisture levels. Crop Sci. Wheat Production Guideline. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
The accumulation of endogenous proline induces changes in gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes in leaves of transgenic Swingle citrumelo. Comparison of responses to drought stress of wheat accessions and landraces to identify opportunities for improving wheat drought resistance. Plant Breed. Identifying high-yielding dryland wheat cultivars for the summer rainfall area of South Africa.
Plant Soil 33 , 77— Identifying physiological traits associated with improved drought resistance in winter wheat.
Field Crops Res. Role of proline under changing environments: The book opens with the essential background on the moisture environment and how it affects plant water status, plant function and plant productivity. It continues from there to explain how plants cope with drought stress by plant constitutive or stress adaptive traits which help to avoid or tolerate dehydration. It concentrates on traits and processes which can be manipulate by plant breeding, separately from those which to date have not yet reached the state of application.
Methods of phenotyping and selection for drought resistance are dealt with in detail concentrating again on proven utility, especially under field conditions. Genetic diversity and genetic resources, either practical or potential are discussed and sorted out. Finally, all of the above is funneled into a discussion of some exemplary breeding schemes. The potential of molecular and genomic methods towards breeding for water limited environments are discussed here only where they have been already tested and fully proven as useful at this time.
It is offered as a sensible and an educational tool to the practitioner, teacher and student in the academia and the industry. Abraham Blum is senior scientist retired from The Volcani Center, Agriculture Research Organization, at Bet Dagan, Israel where he headed the dryland wheat and sorghum breeding programs.
Throughout his career his main interest was in understanding how plants cope with drought and heat stress and subsequently identify principles and develop methods for the genetic improvement of plant production under drought and heat stress. Bertold Hock. Insect Growth Disruptors. Tarlochan S. Breeding strategies for sustainable forage and turf grass improvement.
Susanne Barth. The Triazine Herbicides. Janis Mc Farland. Low Temperature Biology of Insects.
David L. Symbioses and Stress. Joseph Seckbach. Plant-Environment Interactions. Growth Control in Woody Plants. Plant Communication from an Ecological Perspective. Velemir Ninkovic. The Botany of Desire. Michael Pollan. Insect-Plant Interactions Elizabeth A. Teaming with Nutrients. Jeff Lowenfels. Species Diversity and Community Structure. Teiji Sota. Parasitic Orobanchaceae. Lytton J. Tree Identification Book.
George W Symonds. Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement. Mohammad Saghir Khan. Biology of Earthworms. Ayten Karaca. Marcelo J. Progress in Botany. Plant Functional Diversity. Eric Garnier. Multiple Stable States in Natural Ecosystems. Peter Petraitis. Working with Ferns. Ashwani Kumar. Potato Biology and Biotechnology. Dick Vreugdenhil. Plant Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Roberto Fritsche-Neto. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. Biorational Control of Arthropod Pests.
Isaac Ishaaya. Research Progress in Oligosaccharins. Heng Yin.
Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants. Parvaiz Ahmad. Mycorrhizas - Functional Processes and Ecological Impact. Bacterial Diseases of Crop Plants. Suresh G. Drought Tolerance in Higher Plants: Genetical, Physiological and Molecular Biological Analysis. Francisco Moreira. Interactions in Soil: Promoting Plant Growth. John Dighton.
Integrated Soil and Sediment Research: A Basis for Proper Protection. Herman J. C4 Plant Biology.