Volltext von»Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung«. Arthur Schopenhauer. Zürcher Ausgabe. Werke in zehn Bänden. Band 1, Zürich , S. 5. Download PDF Einleitung in Schopenhauers Welt als Wille und Vorstellung Schopenhauers Kunstund Musikphilosophie im dritten Buch der Welt als Wille. Arthur Schopenhauer: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. [Arthur Schopenhauer: The World as Will and Representation]. Ed. by Hallich, Oliver / Koßler, Matthias.
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The style of “Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung” is sometimes loose and Schopenhauer's ipsissima verba has accordingly been preferred. The World as Will and Representation is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Original title, Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung Although English publications about Schopenhauer played a role in the recognition of .. Einstein as a Philosopher of Science" (PDF), Physics Today, American Institute of Physics. Schopenhauer himself has stated that his philosophy is the natural . the French and Italian versions of Die Welt als Wille and Vorstellung. The word "idea".
The other aspect of the world, the Will, or "thing in itself", which is not perceivable as a presentation, exists outside time, space, and causality.
Aquila claims to make these distinctions as linguistically precise as possible.
However, the book contains an appendix entitled " Critique of the Kantian philosophy ," in which Schopenhauer rejects most of Kant's ethics and significant parts of his epistemology and aesthetics. Schopenhauer demands that the introduction be read before the book itself, although it is not fully contained in this book but appeared earlier under the title On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
He also states in his introduction that the reader will be at his best prepared to understand his theories if he has lingered in the school of Plato or he is already familiar with Indian philosophy. Schopenhauer believed that Kant had ignored inner experience, as intuited through the will , which was the most important form of experience. Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation; the Kantian thing-in-itself. He believed, therefore, that we could gain knowledge about the thing-in-itself, something Kant said was impossible, since the rest of the relationship between representation and thing-in-itself could be understood by analogy to the relationship between human will and human body.
According to Schopenhauer, the entire world is the representation of a single Will, of which our individual wills are phenomena.
In this way, Schopenhauer's metaphysics go beyond the limits that Kant had set, but do not go so far as the rationalist system-builders who preceded Kant. Other important differences are Schopenhauer's rejection of eleven of Kant's twelve categories, arguing that only causality was important.
Matter and causality were both seen as a union of time and space and thus being equal to each other. Schopenhauer frequently acknowledges drawing on Plato in the development of his theories and, particularly in the context of aesthetics, speaks of the Platonic forms as existing on an intermediate ontological level between the representation and the Will. Development of the work[ edit ] The development of Schopenhauer's ideas took place very early in his career — and culminated in the publication of the first volume of Will and Representation in This first volume consisted of four books — covering his epistemology, ontology , aesthetics and ethics, in order.
Much later in his life, in , Schopenhauer published a second edition in two volumes, the first a virtual reprint of the original, and the second a new work consisting of clarifications to and additional reflections on the first.
His views had not changed substantially. His belated fame after stimulated renewed interest in his seminal work, and led to a third and final edition with more pages in , one year before his death. In the preface to the latter, Schopenhauer noted: "If I also have at last arrived, and have the satisfaction at the end of my life of seeing the beginning of my influence, it is with the hope that, according to an old rule, it will last longer in proportion to the lateness of its beginning.
Schopenhauer's philosophy holds that all nature, including man, is the expression of an insatiable will to life. It is through the will that mankind finds all their suffering. Desire for more is what causes this suffering. He argues that only aesthetic pleasure creates momentary escape from the Will. The concept of desire has strong parallels in Buddhist thought.
Buddhism identifies the individual's pervasive sense of dissatisfaction as driving craving, roughly similar to what Schopenhauer would call the will to life. Both assert that remedies for this condition include contemplative activities. Schopenhauer's views on the independence of spatially separated systems, the principium individuationis , influenced Einstein ,  who called him a genius.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The World as Will and Representation The title page of the expanded edition. Supplements to the First Book [ edit ] First Half: Historiography, Analysis, Criticism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. Classen, Kemp London: Payne Indian Hills, Colorado: Richard E. Aquila in collaboration with David Carus New York: A New Look at Schopenhauer". Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 14 May For example, from New Scientist: Cambridge University Press.
Jahrbuch zum Conversations-Lexikon, 4. Band, Leipzig Brockhaus , S. Weltschmerz, Pessimism in German Philosophy, Oxford University Press. Arthur Schopenhauer was the most famous and influential philosopher in Germany from until the First World War.
Schopenhauer had a profound influence on two intellectual movements of the late 19th century that were utterly opposed to him: He forced these movements to address issues they would otherwise have completely ignored, and in doing so he changed them markedly.
Schopenhauer set the agenda for his age. Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute. The influence of Schopenhauer on Schoenberg's thinking can be seen in several different ways. First, the influence is reflected directly in Schoenberg's own essays, and philosophical writings about music and other matters.
Of Hegel, no books at all! Francisco University of Washington. The Descent of Man. April The Monist. February Int J Psychoanal. A close study of Schopenhauer's central work, 'The World as Will and Representation', reveals that a number of Freud's most characteristic doctrines were first articulated by Schopenhauer.
Schopenhauer's concept of the will contains the foundations of what in Freud became the concepts of the unconscious and the id. Schopenhauer's writings on madness anticipate Freud's theory of repression and his first theory of the aetiology of neurosis. Schopenhauer's work contains aspects of what become the theory of free association. And most importantly, Schopenhauer articulates major parts of the Freudian theory of sexuality.
These correspondences raise some interesting questions about Freud's denial that he even read Schopenhauer until late in life. The only hope for the individual is to save his own soul; and even this he can do only by avoiding worldly entanglements.
Also, "The only life that is happy is the life that can renounce the amenities of the world.
Given that this conception of the ethical life is so strongly influenced by Schopenhauer, it may be said that, in a way, Schopenhauer stayed with him all his life.
Einstein regarded his separation principle, descended from Schopenhauer's principium individuationis , as virtually an axiom for any future fundamental physics. Schopenhauer stressed the essential structuring role of space and time in individuating physical systems and their evolving states.
This view implies that difference of location suffices to make two systems different in the sense that each has its own real physical state, independent of the state of the other. For Schopenhauer, the mutual independence of spatially separated systems was a necessary a priori truth. His Life and Universe. New York: If he chose the latter, he was to renounce all thought of an academical career, and to enter business on returning to Hamburg.
It was a hard condition to impose on a boy of fifteen, but the plot had been well laid. The lad could not withstand the inducement; he decided in favour of travel, and turned his back upon learning, as he deemed, for ever.
Of this journey Johanna Schopenhauer wrote a lively account, culling her materials from the copious diary she kept.
Her son, too, was encouraged to keep a journal, in order to stimulate accurate observation. While his parents made a trip to the north of Britain, Arthur was left at a school in Wimbledon. It was kept by a clergyman, and the boy appears to have been greatly plagued by his master's orthodox theology.
It was then doubtless that he laid the foundation for the fierce hatred of English bigotry, derided in his works. Here too he gained his accurate knowledge of the language and literature, with which his school-time was chiefly occupied. His recreations were gymnastics and flute playing. When the family visited Switzerland, Arthur was overwhelmed with the majesty of the Alps. He could not satiate his gaze with their beauty, and when his parents desired to go further, he entreated to be left at Chamounix , that he might still longer enjoy this glorious sight.
He touches on this in 'Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung': 'The sad disposition so often remarked in highly gifted men, has its emblem in this mountain with its cloud-capped summit. But when at time, perchance at dawn, the veil of mist is torn asunder, and the peak, glowing with the sun's reflection, looks down on Chamounix from its celestial height above the clouds, it is a spectacle which stirs every soul to its inmost depths. Thus the most melancholy genius will at times show signs of a peculiar cheerfulness of disposition, which springs from the complete objectiveness of his intellect, and is possible only to him.
With the new year he entered a merchant's office, true to his promise.
It was hateful to him, but he tried to resign himself. He honoured and respected his father, and held his wish to be law. A very few months after he had the misfortune to lose this parent, who fell from an attic window into the canal.
It had always been his custom to inspect everything in person, and that would sufficiently account for his presence in this part of his warehouse.
Report, however, spread that Heinrich Schopenhauer had committed suicide on account of fancied pecuniary loss.
He had in truth suffered lately from attacks of over- anxiety, which were thus interpreted as signs of mental derangement. His increased deafness may have helped to foster his violent attacks of passionate anger, which certainly broke out more frequently during the last months of his life. These circumstances combined lent an air of credibility to a rumour often used in after years as a cruel weapon against his son.
Arthur never ceased to reverence his father's memory. An instance of this respect is observable in his remark regarding the mercantile profession. For some cause this preface was omitted.
It deserves quotation as throwing an agreeable light upon a man whom we shall not always find so lovable. When bringing a son such as I am into the world, you made it possible for him to exist and to develop his individuality in a world like this. Without your protection, I should have perished an hundred times over.
You must have foreseen that your son, oh proud republican! The want of harmony among the strangely assorted elements of this family is scarcely astonishing. This circumstance, recognised or dimly discerned, probably explains their restlessness and preference for a nomadic existence.
The abyss had not yet opened between mother and son, but the mental estrangement that must have existed for years evinced itself as soon as they were brought into personal contact, which up to this time had been little the case. Johanna Schopenhauer's volatility, optimism, and love of pleasure, repelled her son, and ever remained a puzzle to him, who, philosopher though he was, failed to make sufficient allowance for peculiarity of temperament, and condemned unsparingly whatever crossed his views.
Neither could the mother understand her son, who fostered gloomy ideas of life, loved solitude, and was maddened beyond endurance by the social cackle politely termed conversation. Arthur felt his father's loss acutely. To show deference to his memory he continued the hated mercantile pursuits, though daily his being rebelled more and more against the monotonous and soulless office routine.
To be chained for life, as he thought, to a path so distasteful, deepened his depression. Meanwhile Frau Schopenhauer made use of her liberty to remove to Weimar , then in the zenith of its glory as a centre of beaux esprits. Here her light- hearted spirit hoped to find more congenial ground than among the respectable Hamburg burghers, whose social meetings were all pervaded by a heavy commercial air, abhorrent to her aesthetic soul.
Nor was she mistaken. Though the time of her arrival coincided with great historical convulsions,—just a fortnight before the battle of Jena and the military occupation of Weimar, a time therefore little adapted to the formation of social relations,—Frau Schopenhauer's energies and talent for society overcame all obstacles.
In an incredibly short space she had formed a salon, collecting round her most of the great stars of that brilliant coterie. To quote the words of her daughter, Adele, prefixed to her mother's unfinished memoirs, 'The time which followed after the father's death , endowed her with a second spring of life, for Heaven granted to her then what is usually the privilege of early youth.
With warm untroubled feelings she gazed into a world unrealized till then, though dreamt of long ago. Surprised at the rapid growth of her abilities, exalted by the sudden development of a latent talent, she experienced ever fresh delight in intercourse with the celebrated men resident at Weimar, or attracted thither by its stars. Her circumstances still permitted her to live in comfort, and to surround herself almost daily with her rich circle of friends. Her modest, pleasing manners made her house a centre of intellectual activity, where everyone felt at home, and freely contributed the best he had to bring.
In the outline of her memoirs she names a few of the interesting men who frequented the salon. Numberless others came and went in the course of years, for despite all outward changes, her house long retained a faint afterglow of those halcyon days. At court, too, the lively widow was a welcome guest.
The terrible October days when Weimar woke to hear the thundering cannons of Jena, made but a temporary interruption to this intellectual life. The pillage of Weimar furnished Johanna Schopenhauer with matter for a lively letter to her son. She interrupted her narrative, however, by saying: 'I could tell you things that would make your hair stand on end, but I refrain, for I know how you love to brood over human misery in any case. This view will not apply to the case of a youth, nurtured in the lap of riches, who had led an independent, careless and interesting life.
Still not even the reverence he paid his father's memory could keep him steadily to office work. His melancholy increased, his letters abounded with invectives on his blighted fate. These complaints reached his mother, who for once could sympathise with her son. With impulsive decision he threw up business and hastened to Gotha , where, by the advice of Fernow, he was to enter upon his academic studies.
He took private lessons in Greek and Latin, besides the usual curriculum; his progress was so rapid that the professors prophesied for him a brilliant future as a classical scholar, and his German writings showed a maturity of thought and expression that astounded everyone.
Schopenhauer laid great stress upon the acquisition of ancient languages, and defended the study of Greek and Latin with all the ardour of a fanatical philologist, weighted with the heavy artillery of abusive utterance that characterised his speech and writing. Heine calls the Nibelungen-Lied an epic written with granite boulders. The criticism would not ill apply to Schopenhauer's massive, bold, lucid and relentless style.
Should the time ever come when the spirit that is bound up with the languages of the ancients shall vanish from our higher education, then barbarity, vulgarity and commonplace, will take possession of all literature.
For the works of the ancients are the pole- star of every artistic and literary effort; if that sinks, you are lost. Already the bad, careless style of most modern authors shows that they have never written Latin. Do not think your modern wisdom can ever prove a substitute for this regeneration; you are not born freemen like the Greeks and Romans; you are not unspoilt children of nature. You are above all the sons and heirs of the barbarous Middle Ages, with their absurdities, their disgraceful priestcraft, their half-brutal, half-ridiculous chivalry.
Though both are coming to an end, you are not yet capable of standing alone. Without classical culture, your literature will degenerate into idle talk and dull pedantry. Your authors, guiltless of Latin, will sink to the level of gossiping barbers. I must censure one special abuse, which daily stalks forth more insolently: it is this, that in scientific books and in learned journals issued by academies, quotations from the Greek, and even those from the Latin, are given in a German translation.
Fie, for shame! I almost think you do, to command a large sale. Then permit me most humbly to remark that you are common fellows in every sense of the word. Have more honour in your souls and less money in your pockets, and let the uncultured man feel his inferiority, instead of scraping bows to his money-box. A German translation of Greek and Latin authors is a substitute similar to that which gives chicory in place of coffee; besides which you cannot even depend on its accuracy.
He threw aside the apathy that had begun to envelope him at Hamburg, and entered heart and soul into his studies. His course at Gotha came to a sudden end, after six months' residence. A professor named Schulze, personally unknown to Schopenhauer, had publicly made some uncomplimentary remarks on the German class to which he belonged.
Considering that the Professor had been wanting in the respect due to German gymnasiasts, Schopenhauer, with all the ardour of youth, gave vent to some sarcastic speeches on the subject, which, though delivered privately, were reported to the master, whose petty nature could not bear the irritation of sarcasm.
He swore revenge, and succeeded in inducing Schopenhauer's private tutor, Doring, to discontinue his instructions. Under these circumstances, Schopenhauer held it to be incompatible with his honour to remain in the Gymnasium; he quitted Gotha in the autumn of and proceeded to Weimar. There he continued his preparatory collegiate studies. Weimar attracted him; he preferred to remain here rather than follow his mother's wishes, and enter another gymnasium.
He did not, however, live under her roof, at her express desire. I have always told you it is difficult to live with you; and the better I get to know you, the more I feel this difficulty increase, at least for me.
I do not undervalue your good points, and that which repels me does not lie in your heart; it is in your outer, not your inner being; in your ideas, your judgment, your habits; in a word, there is nothing concerning the outer world in which we agree. Your ill-humour, your complaints of things inevitable, your sullen looks, the extraordinary opinions you utter, like oracles none may presume to contradict; all this depresses me and troubles me, without helping you.
Your eternal quibbles, your laments over the stupid world and human misery, give me bad nights and unpleasant dreams. In the same house lived Franz Passow, two years his senior, who had also devoted himself to classical learning at Gotha, under Professor Jacobs, and who subsequently became a distinguished philologist.
With Passow's aid and supervision, Scopenhauer penetrated yet further into the mysteries and riches of classical lore. His natural aptitude for learning languages helped him to repair lost time with incredible rapidity. He laboured day and night at Greek, Latin, Mathematics, and History, allowing nothing to divert his attention.
He appears to have gained admission to the theatre, and seen the wonderful sight it presented when Talma and a chosen Parisian troupe played the finest tragedies of France before this 'parterre of kings.
His stupendous energy never abated. During the first year of his residence he heard lectures on Constitutional History, Natural History, Mineralogy, Physics, Botany, and the History of the Crusades, besides reading at home on all cognate matters. He then passed into the philosophical faculty, devoting his attention to Plato and Kant, before attempting the study of Aristotle and Spinoza. Combined with his philosophical curriculum, he found time to attend lectures on Astronomy, Meteorology, Physiology, Ethnography, and Jurisprudence.
He laid great stress on the advantages of viva voce instruction, though he has also admitted, in one of his manuscript books, c that the dead word of a great man is worth incomparably more than the viva vox of a blockhead. In them he noted down not only all he heard delivered, but his own criticisms and comments. He is often at variance with his masters, and says so in no measured terms, destroying their vantage ground with his relentless logic, or by some apt quotation.
The many-sidedness of his acquirements becomes more and more remarkable as these note-books are perused. He prided himself on his knowledge of the physical sciences, and always laid stress upon them when speaking of his philosophic system, largely influenced by this catholicity, for his works abound with illustrations drawn from all branches of science. To this he owed his large-mindedness, his scope; it is this separates him so widely from the generality of philosophers whose arguments and instances are solely derived from psychology.
He acknowledges the fact when he says: 'This is why I can speak with authority, and I have done so honourably. And test yourself whether you really possess and comprehend physiology, which presupposes a knowledge of anatomy and chemistry. He was certainly no German student in that ordinary acceptation of the word which implies a youth addicted to the imbibition of innumerable bumpers of beer, to playing of mad pranks, and duelling on the smallest provocation.
Schopenhauer was a sworn enemy to the foolish practice of duelling, and has exposed its absurdities with his biting sarcasm and unerring logic. He treats its intellectual rather than its ethical aspect; disdaining to give emphasis to the palpable paradox that blind heathens had ignored the sublime principles of honour which are held as exigent by the followers of the gentle Preacher of the Mount.
Superior strength, practice, or chance, decides the question in debate. There are various forms of insult; to strike a person is an act of such grave magnitude that it causes the moral death of the person struck; while all other wounded honour can be healed by a greater or lesser amount of blood, this insult needs complete death to afford its cure.
Only those conversant with the absurd lengths to which duelling has been carried at the German universities can fully appreciate Schopenhauer's bitterness. This essay on duelling was not published till the last years of his life, but it is incontestable that the youth shared the sage's views and acted upon them. The only fellow-students Schopenhauer mentioned especially were Bunsen and an American, who had been attracted to him by his knowledge of English.
The two were his habitual dinner companions. Schopenhauer later dwelt on the singular chance that made the three each realise in their person the three possible spheres of happiness he admits; dividing all possessions into what a man is, that which he has, and that which he represents. His own lot he deemed the most important, though not the happiest or the most dazzling—that of a marked individuality. But he died too soon after his early friend to admit of their realisation.
Though ardently impressionable, he never carried enhusiasm beyond calm analytical judgment; and that he clearly recognised the sound core as well as the exterior prickles of the fruit for which he abandoned the active world, is proved by a letter written at this period. The higher you climb, the lonelier, the more desolate grows the way; but he who treads it must know no fear; he must leave everything behind him; he will at last have to cut his own path through the ice.
His road will often bring him to the edge of a chasm, whence he can look into the green valley beneath. Giddiness will overcome him, and strive to draw him down, but he must resist and hold himself back. The climber stands amid clear fresh air, and can behold the sun when all beneath is still shrouded in the blackness of night. Between the years he heard Schleiermacher read on the ' History of Philosophy since the time of Christ,' Wolf on the 'Clouds' of Aristophanes, the 'Satires' of Horace, and Greek antiquities, still continuing his natural history studies of Physics, Astronomy, General Physiology, Zoology, and Geology.
How carefully he followed, his copious note-books prove. The most characteristic are those relating in any way to philosophy.
His annotations grow more and more independent; the elements of his own system become more traceable as he differs from his professors, and explains his reasons for diverging from the beaten track. He does not hesitate to controvert their assertions, in language of unmistakable distinctness, occasionally in sarcasms more biting than refined. This habit of employing strong expressions increased with Schopenhauer's years, and is greatly to be regretted, as he could have easily been equally emphatic without recourse to a practice that exposed him to the imputation of vulgarity.
This exercise of the clumsy weapons of abuse in place of dignified controversy is a serious blot on the escutcheon of German men of learning, and is doubly regrettable in Schopenhauer, who possessed a facility of wielding his native tongue quite unusual with ordinary writers, who seem to hold that the value of the matter is in inverse proportion to the merit of the manner. It is this that makes the Germans so pre-eminently unreadable; and one of Schopenhauer's chief claims to hearing is his happy art of adapting himself to the meanest capacity.
It is no small merit to say of a philosopher that his works will never stand in need of an expounder. Fichte's personality repelled him, as well as his delivery.