Scientific american september 2015 pdf

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Scientific American (ISSN ), Volume , Number 3, September , published monthly by Scientific American, a division of Nature. Years of General Relativity: Scientific American Special Issue. Does Einstein's Theory of Gravity Hold Near Black Holes? Scientific American Editorial and Einstein. Scientific American (ISSN ), Volume , Number 6, December , published monthly by Scientific American, a division of Nature.

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Scientific American September 2015 Pdf

2 Scientific American, September M. A Division, org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/Key_Findings_WPP_pdf. September , 7 World Economic Forum, January December , WORLD. CHANGING. IDEAS. 10 big advances that will improve life, transform computing.

Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein , have contributed articles to it. It is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States though it only became monthly in Scientific American was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in [2] as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U.

The study showed that, while at the beginning of the time period the journals indexed only in WoS published While these findings reinforce the importance of evaluations covering national scientific output to be carried out as exhaustively as possible, it should be borne in mind that impact indicators based on citation are designed to be complementary. This consensus, established in the specialized literature in bibliometric studies, and assimilated by a large part of the international evaluation processes — which led, for example, to the Leiden Manifesto — has also been established in Brazil about two decades ago.

However, when it comes to the use of impact indicators in large-scale evaluation exercises, it is limited exclusively to qualifying scientific production according to the Impact Factor of the journal where it was published, i.

Moreover, an observed consequence is the consolidation of citation indexes of worldwide scope, such as Web of Science WoS , which is the pioneering and most used initiative, and more recently Scopus, whose use has been gradually increasing. Thus, SciELO, created in the s, has become an important complementary source, whose potential for impact assessment begins to show its potential.

This potential was envisioned by the very creator of the Science Citation Index, who at the time warned that scientists from these countries would still send their best work to international journals3.

The authors also found that some Spaniards went so far as to avoid publishing in them, because they felt it would weigh negatively in the evaluation of their curricula.

They came to inquire about a possible lack of citation to these journals, because they were devoted to local problems, but rejected the idea that they should therefore be discarded, since the citation flow in the world literature concentrates in a small portion of core international journals.

Areas in which these percentages present a very similar profile are Computer Science, Economics and Business, and Mathematics.

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Another important observation is that the volume of articles cited in the international context dark blue is significantly larger, as a reflection of the publication effort, but also of the greater number of foreign journals Source: Mugnaini, Noyons e Packer5 Distribution of cited and not cited articles in the corpus of SciELO and WoS journals citation window of up to two years , according to area of the cited article. However, a slightly different scenario is shown when one observes the volume of citations received by articles published only in SciELO journals: the percentage of citations originating from the domestic flow Brazilian articles in SciELO journals, in dark red is quite significant not only for the Social and Human Sciences, but for Agrarian and Biological Sciences areas; and differently from what could be expected, the international impact of articles in SciELO journals not only has a significant international impact mainstream flow, blue tones , but most come from foreign authors observed in areas such as Exact Sciences in general, and many areas of Health Sciences and Biology.

Source: Mugnaini, Noyons e Packer5 Distribution of citations citation window of up to two years to Brazilian articles published in SciELO journals, according to the area of the cited article, indexing database and presence of Brazilian author s on the citing article.

Notes 1. Publishing from the periphery: Structural heterogeneity and segmented circuits. Scientific American magazine was founded by Rufus Porter as a single-page newsletter, and throughout its early years, Scientific American put much emphasis on reports from the U.

It reported on a broad range of inventions that included perpetual motion machines, an device for buoying vessels by Abraham Lincoln , and the universal joint which now finds a place in nearly every automobile manufactured.

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Current issues feature a "this date in history" section, featuring an article originally published 50, , and years ago—where often-humorous, unscientific, or otherwise noteworthy gems of science history are featured. The publication originally styled itself as "The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise" and "Journal of Mechanical and other Improvements.

This paper is especially entitled to the patronage of Mechanics and Manufactures, being the only paper in America, devoted to the interest of those classes; but is particularly useful to farmers, as it will not only appraise them of improvements in agriculture implements, But instruct them in various mechanical trades, and guard them against impositions As a family newspaper, it will convey more useful intelligence to children and young people, than five times its cost in school instruction.

Under the second Orson D. Munn, grandson of the first, it had evolved into something of a "workbench" publication, similar to the twentieth century incarnation of Popular Science.

Scientific American magazine

From to , Scientific American supervised the publication of the Encyclopedia Americana, which during some of that period was known simply as The Americana. In the years after World War II , the magazine fell on hard times. Three partners who were planning on starting a new popular science magazine, to be called The Sciences, instead downloadd the assets of the old Scientific American and put its name on the designs they had created for their new magazine.

Miller, Jr. Miller retired in , Flanagan and Piel in , when Gerard Piel's son Jonathan became president and editor; by that time, circulation had grown fifteen fold since In the s, the target audience changed, from other scientists in unrelated fields, to educated general readers interested in science issues.

The magazine American Scientist, published since by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, which has scientifically-trained editors, includes articles written by prominent scientists and engineers, accompanied by photographs or charts to clarify or emphasize points made in the text. It covers similar ground to Scientific American, but at a level more suitable for the professional science audience, similar to the older style of Scientific American.

Thus, the original audience of Scientific American has generally migrated to the more scientifically oriented American Scientist.

Nevertheless, Scientific American continues to be popular; by December , the publication had a monthly circulation of roughly , U. Today, Scientific American publishes 18 foreign-language editions around the globe.

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Kexue, a simplified Chinese edition launched in , was the first Western magazine published in the People's Republic of China. The site has grown into a resource that includes articles from current and past issues, online-only features, daily news, weird science, special reports, trivia, "Scidoku," and more. At the website, visitors can subscribe to the Scientific American magazine, Scientific American Mind Magazine, and Scientific American Digital, which houses downloadable PDF issues of the magazines from to the present.

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