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Printed in the United States of America. Manufacturing by R. Includes bibliographical references and index. Mathematical statistics. Pisani, Robert. Purves, Roger.

Plotting Points and Lines 1. Correlation 1. More about Correlation 1. Regression 1. Introduction 2. The R. Error for Regression 1. Introduction Computing the R. The Regression Line 1.

What Are the Chances? More about Chance 1. The Binomial Formula 1. The Law of Averages 1. What Does the Law of Averages Say? The Expected Value and Standard Error 1. The Normal Approximation for Probability Histograms 1. Sample Surveys 1.

The Literary Digest Poll 3. The Year the Polls Elected Dewey 4. Using Chance in Survey Work 5. A Closer Look at the Gallup Poll 7. Telephone Surveys 8. Chance Error and Bias 9. Review Exercises Summary Chapter Chance Errors in Sampling 1.

The Expected Value and Standard Error 3. The Accuracy of Percentages 1. Measuring Employment and Unemployment 1. The Accuracy of Averages 1. A Model for Measurement Error 1. Chance Models in Genetics 1. How Mendel Discovered Genes 2. An Appreciation of the Model 5.

Review Exercises 6. Tests of Significance 1. More Tests for Averages 1.

The Chi-Square Test 1. A Closer Look at Tests of Significance 1. Was the Result Significant? We will try to explain why the methods work, and what to watch out for when others use them. As a matter of fact, even when professional mathematicians read technical books, their eyes tend to skip over the equations. What they really want is a sympathetic friend who will explain the ideas and draw the pictures behind the equations.

We will try to be that friend, for those who read our book. Statistics is the art of making numerical conjectures about puzzling questions. What causes the resemblance between parents and children, and how strong is that force?

Why does the casino make a profit at roulette? Who is going to win the next election? How many people are employed? These are difficult issues, and statistical methods help a lot if you want to think about them. The methods were developed over several hundred years by people who were looking for answers to their questions. Some of these people will be introduced later. With a good design, reliable conclusions can be drawn from the data. Some badly-designed studies are discussed too—so you can see the pitfalls, and learn what questions to ask when reading about a study.

Study design is perhaps our most important topic; that is why we start there. The ideas look simple, but appearances may be deceptive: part I has a lot of depth. Descriptive statistics—the art of summarizing data—is introduced in part II. Histograms, the average, the standard deviation, and the normal curve are all considered. The discussion continues in part III, where the focus is on analyzing relationships, for instance, the dependence of income on education.

Here, correlation and regression are the main topics. Much statistical reasoning depends on the theory of probability, discussed in part IV; the connection is through chance models, which are developed in part V.

Coins, dice, and roulette wheels are the main examples in parts IV and V. The expected value and standard error are introduced; probability histograms are developed, and convergence to the normal curve is discussed. Part VI is about estimation. For instance, how does the Gallup Poll predict the vote? Why are some methods for drawing samples better than others? Part VII uses chance models to analyze measurement error, and to develop genetic theory.

Part VIII introduces tests of significance, to judge whether samples are consistent with hypotheses about the population. If the model is wrong, the resulting inference may be quite shaky. Nowadays, inference is the branch of statistics most interesting to professionals.

However, non-statisticians often find descriptive statistics a more useful branch, and the one that is easier to understand. That is why we take up descriptive statistics before inference. The Histogram 1.

Chapter 4. The Average and the Standard Deviation 1. The Normal Approximation for Data 1. Measurement Error 1. Plotting Points and Lines 1. Correlation 1. More about Correlation 1. Regression 1. Introduction 2.

The R. Error for Regression 1. Introduction Computing the R. The Regression Line 1. What Are the Chances? More about Chance 1. The Binomial Formula 1. The Law of Averages 1.

What Does the Law of Averages Say? The Expected Value and Standard Error 1. The Normal Approximation for Probability Histograms 1. Sample Surveys 1. The Literary Digest Poll 3. The Year the Polls Elected Dewey 4. Using Chance in Survey Work 5. A Closer Look at the Gallup Poll 7.

Telephone Surveys 8. Chance Error and Bias 9. Review Exercises Summary Chapter Chance Errors in Sampling 1. The Expected Value and Standard Error 3. The Accuracy of Percentages 1. Measuring Employment and Unemployment 1. The Accuracy of Averages 1. A Model for Measurement Error 1. Chance Models in Genetics 1. How Mendel Discovered Genes 2. An Appreciation of the Model 5.

Review Exercises 6. Tests of Significance 1. More Tests for Averages 1. The Chi-Square Test 1. A Closer Look at Tests of Significance 1.

Was the Result Significant? We will try to explain why the methods work, and what to watch out for when others use them. As a matter of fact, even when professional mathematicians read technical books, their eyes tend to skip over the equations. What they really want is a sympathetic friend who will explain the ideas and draw the pictures behind the equations. We will try to be that friend, for those who read our book. Statistics is the art of making numerical conjectures about puzzling questions.

What causes the resemblance between parents and children, and how strong is that force? Why does the casino make a profit at roulette?

Who is going to win the next election? How many people are employed? These are difficult issues, and statistical methods help a lot if you want to think about them. The methods were developed over several hundred years by people who were looking for answers to their questions. Some of these people will be introduced later.

With a good design, reliable conclusions can be drawn from the data. Some badly-designed studies are discussed too—so you can see the pitfalls, and learn what questions to ask when reading about a study. Study design is perhaps our most important topic; that is why we start there. The ideas look simple, but appearances may be deceptive: part I has a lot of depth. Descriptive statistics—the art of summarizing data—is introduced in part II. Histograms, the average, the standard deviation, and the normal curve are all considered.

The discussion continues in part III, where the focus is on analyzing relationships, for instance, the dependence of income on education. Here, correlation and regression are the main topics.

Much statistical reasoning depends on the theory of probability, discussed in part IV; the connection is through chance models, which are developed in part V. Coins, dice, and roulette wheels are the main examples in parts IV and V. The expected value and standard error are introduced; probability histograms are developed, and convergence to the normal curve is discussed. Part VI is about estimation. For instance, how does the Gallup Poll predict the vote?

Why are some methods for drawing samples better than others? Part VII uses chance models to analyze measurement error, and to develop genetic theory.