Lin Chong Stirs Internal Strife in the Water−Girt Stronghold. Chao Gai Wins a Battle in Liangshan Marsh. •. Chapter The Men of Liangshan Marsh Make Chao. QR link for Outlaws of the Marsh (Water Margin) Format Type: PDF (eBook) Water Margin, also known as Outlaws of the Marsh, All Men Are Brothers, Men of . The Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan 水浒传) (also known as Outlaws of the Marsh or All The stories that make up The Water Margin, sometimes referred to as.
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centered, The Water Margin, reflecting this reality,. 'This is part of a study of the novel translated by the author from his original Chinese article in Chung-kuo. User summary: After active development of the product concluded the author combined all web content into a consolidated PDF document distributed in ten. Water Margin (水滸傳, 水浒传, All Men Are Brothers, Outlaws of the Marsh), by Shi Naian (施耐庵); Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國演義，三国演义), by Luo.
Yet other editions were published since this era to the early Qing dynasty , including a chapter edition by Jin Shengtan. The various editions of Water Margin can roughly be classified into two groups - simplified and traditional. Simplified editions[ edit ] The simplified editions include stories on the outlaws being granted amnesty, followed by their campaigns against the Liao dynasty , Tian Hu , Wang Qing and Fang La , all the way until Song Jiang 's death. The three main versions of the Complex editions are a chapters, a chapters and a chapters edition.
The most commonly modified parts of the Complex edition are the stories on what happened after the outlaws are granted amnesty. Translations[ edit ] Yang Lin , a hero from the novel, from Utagawa Kuniyoshi 's series of woodblock prints illustrating the Suikoden.
Water Margin has been translated into many languages. In , publisher Kagaya Kichibei commissioned Utagawa Kuniyoshi to produce a series of woodblock prints illustrating the heroes in Water Margin.
The — series, called Heroes of the Water Margin or Tsuzoku Suikoden goketsu hyakuhachinin no hitori, catapulted Kuniyoshi to fame. It also brought about a craze for multicoloured pictorial tattoos that covered the entire body from the neck to the mid-thigh. Among these later series was Yoshitoshi 's — series of 50 designs in Chuban size, which are darker than Kuniyoshi's and feature strange ghosts and monsters. Buck was one of the first English translators of the chapter version.
Titled All Men are Brothers and published in , the book was well received by the American public. However, it was also heavily criticised for its errors and inaccuracies; an often cited example from this edition is Buck's mistranslation of Lu Zhishen 's nickname "Flowery Monk" as "Priest Hua".
Jackson, edited by Fang Lo-Tien. Of the later translations, Chinese-naturalised scholar Sidney Shapiro 's Outlaws of the Marsh is considered to be one of the best.
However, as it was published during the Cultural Revolution , this edition received little attention then. The novel is based on the story of Wu Song avenging his brother in Water Margin, but the focus is on Ximen Qing 's sexual relations with other women, including Pan Jinlian.
In Water Margin, Ximen Qing is killed by Wu Song for murdering the latter's brother, while in Jin Ping Mei he dies a horrible death due to an accidental overdose of aphrodisiac pills.
The story is set after the end of the original Water Margin, with Li Jun as the protagonist. It tells of how the surviving Liangshan heroes are forced to become outlaws again due to corruption in the government. When the armies of the Jurchen -ruled Jin dynasty invade the Song dynasty, the heroes rise up to defend their nation from the invaders.
The heroes eventually decide to leave China for good and sail to distant lands. Yu disagreed that the Liangshan outlaws are loyal and righteous heroes, and was determined to portray them as ruthless mass murderers and destroyers, hence he wrote Dang Kou Zhi. He stated that the latter were former students of the general's martial arts tutor, Zhou Tong.
Perpetrators are then captured by the hero, and a blood debt is paid. In a dream, the current leader Li Jun is visited by the spirit of Song Jiang, who requests that he restore the honor of the fraternity. Now I will read a passage depicting this scene of vindication and sworn fraternity: Half of my brothers died on the battlefield for the throne; the emperor wanted to bestow esteemed positions upon us, but you traitors repeatedly stopped him.
Now all the loyal ministers and generals are dead; half the country has been demoralized and at the brink of falling, and the masses are disheartened. Li Ying waved his hand and heard the 5 Lem sound of three roaring canons.
Four to five thousand people called out like thunders in the hilly mountains. In a matter of minutes, Cai Jing and the three traitors bled from all six orifices and dropped dead to the ground.
But actually these are phrases Chen borrows from the parent work chapter edition. To valorize their spirits, the perpetrators must now pay blood debts through violence, often necessary in heroic action. Now that the perpetrators have paid their blood debts, the sworn fraternal honor of Liangshan has presumably been restored.
Eventually Gao accuses Lin Chong of attempted murder and forces him to join the Liangshan bandits.
Lin Chong never has the opportunity to vindicate himself in the parent work, but this now becomes a narrative gap that can be properly addressed in Quell the Bandits. Lin Chong feels gratified to have the chance of vindicating himself by physical mutilating and murdering Gao. They battle over rounds and then begin a dialogue on what qualities make a hero Wang Jin argues that when a man is in dire straits, he can either become a bandit or tough out a difficult situation and eventually rejoin the imperial army.
Vindication through violent action seems empty, forcing Lin Chong to symbolically take his own life with the purpose of salvaging what ever honor is left. In this next section, I will show that, despite attempting to make the Water Margin a cautionary tale against rebellion, Yu Wanchun provides a dramatically different reading of characters like Wu Song that has the effect of exaggerating their sworn fraternal honor to stress the limitations of heroic action.
Lu returns to the Hall of Loyalty of Righteousness, Lu Zhishen returns to the Hall of Loyalty and Righteousness suffering from the combination of excess consumption meat and wine, several flesh wounds, and an extended battle high: Song Jiang and Wu Yong caught a glimpse of Lu Zhishen with staff in hand and his head covered in blood.
In shock, they asked him what happened. Today I will kill you and rescue people from harm! You spineless dogs! What a joy it will be to end your lives!
The irony is that while Lu believes he is helping Song Jiang to destroy the Imperial Palace and kill Gao Qiu, he has actually destroyed the Hall of Loyalty and Righteousness and has attacked Wu Yong, the mastermind behind the Liangshan bandit resistance movement. Wutai into an ironic, fatal heroism that informs his commitment to the fraternity, expressed through his efforts to terminate Gao Qiu Wu Yong and destroy the Imperial Palace Hall of Loyalty and Righteousness.
Both sequel writers Chen Chen and Yu Wanchun attempted to rewrite the image of Liangshan hero by borrowing hero cycles from the parent work and offer interpretations of their own. Last, Quell the Bandits is striking because the sequel writer attempts to demonstrate the limits of heroic action, by making a parody of it, as in the case of Lu Zhishen. The narrative of a sequel and its commentaries often function as interpretations that focus on issues, such as the dilemma between zhong and yi, the definition of haohan, and how to deal with the images of violence and transgression in the Water Margin.